The Indian Removal Act (Quynh Nguyen)

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  • Gold! Precious gold!
  • In the 19th century, the English settlers mainly wanted Cherokee land because there was very good farming for their crops and gold was discovered in which brought excitement to many.
  • With such intense, President Andrew Jackson—a powerful proponent of the Indian Removal sent out the U.S. military forces in 1814, to defeat a section of the Indian tribes. As a result, Jackson successfully gained land in Georgia as including Alabama. Four years later, he conquered land in Florida as well.
  • Throughout the years of 1814 to 1824, Jackson started the process of negotiating nine out of eleven treaties which divested the Southern tribes of their eastern lands in exchange for lands located in the west. In response, the tribes doubtfully agreed in hopes of avoiding harassment and to pacify the government.
  • By 1823, the Supreme Court/state government decided that Indians could only occupy lands within the United States, but could not hold title to those lands.
  • Consequently, the Creeks, Cherokee, and Chicasaw commenced the policies of restricting land sales to the government since they wanted to protect what was left of their lands before the white settlers would take what was once theirs. And so, they fought back without violence. In 1831, the Cherokees returned back to the Supreme Court.
  • In 1830, President Andrew Jackson officially secured the Indian Removal Act by giving the president power as negotiation of removal treaties located east of the Mississippi, which forced them to give up their lands in exchange for lands in the west. Indians who were willing to stay in the east would be known as citizens of their homeland. Moreover, the Choctaw were the first ones to surrender where other tribes denied. They were forced to sign the removal treaty. Unfortunately, each tribe lost their lands one by one which was once theirs for ages.
  • Mine, all mine!
  • The Jackson administration had forced out approximately 46,000 Native Americans from their land east of the Mississippi by 1837.
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