chapter 21

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  • Confucianism
  • Daoism
  • Legalism
  • Confucius, or the founder of Confucianism believed that people must respect others above them in a relationship. For example, a servant must respect a king. In return, the king, or the person whose status is higher, should set an example for others below them. This belief is called Confucianism. Confucianism influence the Han Dynasty. Many people of the Han Dynasty learned Confucianism from a book called, "The Analects". Level 2 Question: How could a king be chosen or overthrown?
  • Laozi is the founder of Daoism. He was once an adviser for the Zhou court, but grew tired of his job so he thought of leaving China. When a guard found out that Laozi was leaving, he asked Laozi to record his thoughts. So, Laozi wrote a 5,000 character book called, "The Dao De Jing", which taught Daoism. Laozi believes in the concept of the yin and yang, which are two opposite forces combined. All this really means is that you can't have something without the opposite of it being physically or emotionally there too. Laozi also believes that kings should rule as little as possible. Daoism influenced Chinese thought, writing, and art. Level 2 Question: How did Daoism follow the idea of Dao, or "the Way"?
  • Legalism was a belief that influenced the Qin dynasty. The founder of Legalism was Hanfeizi. He noticed that no one was trustworthy, so kings shouldn't even trust the people closest to them. Instead, kings should be the only ones in power. According to what Hanfeizi also believed, kings should have a strong military and reward good behavior, but punish bad behavior. All of Hanfeizi's beliefs were recorded into the book that was named after him: "Hanfeizi'. Level 2 Question: What is the purpose of Legalism?
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