Transcription and Translation

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  • Central Dogma By: Alexia Rosa
  • DNA
  • Central Dogma is the process of genes becoming the Proteins that make up an entire living organism. The Central Dogma states that DNA makes RNA and RNA makes Protein
  • CENTRAL DOGMA
  • RNA
  • Protein
  • DNA
  • The first half of the Central Dogma, DNA into RNA, is done through a process called "Transcription."Transcription occurs in the nucleus of a cell, where DNA is stored. When a gene is ready to be transcribed, the helical double-stranded DNA unwinds and unzip, and an Enzyme called RNA Polymerase reads along the DNA making a complementary strand of mRNA. Once the complementary mRNA strand is formed, it's transported out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm an over to a Ribosome. When the the mRNA reaches the Ribosome, its ready to go through the second part of Central Dogma "Translation."
  • Transcription
  • RNA
  • RNA
  • When the mRNA reaches the Ribsome its ready for the second part of the Central Dogma. mRNA into Protein. This is done through a process called Translation. During Translation , the Ribosome reads the mRNA three Nucleotides at a time and Amino Acids in the correct order. Also complementary Amino Acids are brought to the Ribosome by tRNA( Transfer RNA). When the Ribosome reaches the stop codon, the chain of Amino Acids is released from the Ribsome and after some modifications, will fold into a specific 3D protein which can carry out the function encoded in the DNA sequence.
  • Translation
  • Protein
  • There could be small mutations in the DNA, then those mutations could be passed to to making the RNA incorrectly. Then the RNA would be used by the Ribosome to incorrectly make the proteins. So if the proteins are incorrectly made, they will not be able to properly perform its function. Proteins are imporatant in many different processes for the organism, so this can cause a huge problem for the organism .
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