NHD_elizabeth

NHD_elizabeth
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  • Elizabeth 1 - Exploration of the New World, Mercantilism and Colonization
  • Economic and Foreign Policy
  • English Explorers during Elizabeth's reign
  • The reign of Elizabeth 1 was a Golden age for England in terms of Exploration overseas. European exploration of the Outer Banks of what we call North Carolina today began in the early decades of the sixteenth century. The French and Spanish had explored the region in the past, but neither made any effort to settle in the region. Spain was having a strong presence in South America and the London Merchants who were eyeing on the gold and silver taken by Spain, started looking for a privateering and trade post in North America. By the 1580s, English financiers and navigators became anxious that their chances for North American wealth and claims were fading. Spain dominated the Caribbean and southern regions like Florida.
  • Reconnoisance Voyage 1584
  • The English seamen and explorers were encouraged by Queen Elizabeth to make their voyages of exploration. An early statement on national balance of trade in 1549 was: "We must always take heed that we buy no more from strangers than we sell them, for so should we impoverish ourselves and enrich them." Queen Elizabeth promoted Mercantilism and issued laws such as the Trade and Navigation Acts for the protection and promotion of English shipping.
  • Second Voyage – Virginia colony - Richard Grenville and Ralph Lane Voyage
  • One of the greatest of the English sea captains was Sir Francis Drake, a friend of Sir Walter Raleigh. Sir Francis Drake was a privateer good at raiding Spain's treasure ships. His circumnavigation of the world marked the arrival of English explorers in discovering the new world. Their pursuit for dominance in seafaring, was assisted by the unparalleled mathematical, scientific and navigational expertise of John Dee, Thomas Harriot, Walter Raleigh and Richard Hakluyt
  • Third Voyage – The lost colony
  • The Ships were well furnished and after a brief stop at the carribean, the captains – Philip Amadas and Arthur Barlowe pointed their vessels due north to Florida and then landed at the sandy banks of cape hatteras in North Carolina. After sailing 120 miles, they entered the shallow waters of Pamlico Sound. Barlowes description of the place read “I think in all the world the like abundance is not to be founde: and myself, having seen those parts of Europe that most abound, find much difference as were incredible to te written. He compared the Carolina coast to the Garden of Eden. Here they met the head of the an Indian tribe Granganimero and distributed presents. But what took the native Indians breath away was the English weaponry. The Indians fought with bows and arrows, clubs and wooden swords and were terrified by the power of the guns used by the English. Barlowe explored the Raonake island for 5 weeks, searching for the most suitable place to plant a colony. They surveyed about 100 islands , but none could match Roanoke. Per Raleigh’s instructions, they got two native americans Wanchese and Mateo on their return Voyage to England. Thomas Harriot with his linguistic ability learnt Algonkian the language of the Indians, working obsessively. Harriot’s resultant alphabet had 36 characters – a combination of algebraic symbols, Greek and Roman letters, inverted characters. Most of his work was destroyed in the Fire of London in 1666, but the alphabets survived. He invested considerable energy in learning conversational Algonkian and in teaching Indians some basic English. He captured this information in his Book America – A Briefe and True Report. He learnt that the region around Roanake island was ruled by competing tribal chieftains. Manteo fed Harriot with priceless information about battle strategy and weaponry.
  • With the knowledge gained in the reconnaissance mission, Raleigh and Hakluyt presented the proposal for the First colony in American in a territory known as Virginia, honouring Queen Elizabeth. The project was funded by investors Sir Francis Walsingam and Sir Richard Grenville and other wealthy London Merchants. Richard Hakluyt did the logistics planning for the settlement. Four ships under the captaincy of Richard Grenvile, George Raymond, Ralph lane accompanied by painter john White and Hariot who was incharge of mapping the new territories, studying natural curiosities and recording all materials and resources that could prove useful to the colony. Spains attempts to monitor Raleigh’s plans was thwarted when its ambassador Mendoza was sent back. During this voyage, painter John White made numerous famous drawings with watercolors of the landscapes and native people. His superb watercolors of native plants, animals and Indian life, give us an insight into what the English found during their explorations. The "Virginea Pars" map produced from explorations conducted by John White is a remarkably-accurate map that depicts the coastal area from Chesapeake Bay to Cape Lookout, including the location of many native American villages visited by the colonists. During this voyage the partnership between painter John White and scientist Thomas Harriot resulted in a detailed account of natural history, ethnography and cartography. With the adventures Mateo and Wanchese onboard the ships set to sail on April 1585. Lane was forced to abandon Roanoke Island in late June 1586 owing to hostilities between the English and the Secotans on whom Lane's men depended for food. He arranged with Sir Francis Drake, who had arrived off Hatorask Island with a large fleet from the West Indies earlier in the month, to transport the colonists to the Chesapeake Bay but a hurricane hit the coast as the men were about to embark and persuaded Lane to return to England instead. Back in London, he reported his discoveries to Raleigh and emphasized the advantages of the Chesapeake Bay as a location for a settlement from which to fit out explorations inland to search for gold mines and a passage to the South Sea.
  • In April 1587, White led a group of 118 men, women, and children, including his daughter Eleanor, and son-in-law, Ananias Dare, besides many friends and associates to establish a settlement on the Chesapeake Bay called the City of Raleigh. He was unable to get back to Roanoke Island for three years by which time the colonists had disappeared, leaving behind only a cryptic message, "CRO" and "Croatoan" that told him they had moved to Croatoan Island 50 miles to the south, where Manteo's people lived. Whilst trying to reach them a fierce storm drove his ship out to sea and the attempt was abandoned. White returned to England and then moved to Munster in southern Ireland, where he likely died in the early years of the seventeenth century. What happened to the colonists still remains a mystery.
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