Atomic Structure pt1


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  • Democritus first proposed that atoms were indivisible and indestructible particles that made up all matter
  • Hi! Today, we will be talking about the atomic structure and its history.
  • The atomic structure refers to the particles that make up an atom, the basic building block of matter, which is everything around you.
  • The atom has three subatomic particles. These particles are the proton, the neutron, and the electron. The proton has a positive charge. The electron has a negative charge. The neutron has no charge
  • Atoms also have a specific atomic number which is determined by the number of protons it has. They also have an atomic mass, which is determined by adding the number of neutrons with the number of protons.
  • Atoms also have a charge which is determined by changing the sign, then adding the number of electrons to the number of protons.
  • Atoms with an equal number of protons and electrons have a neutral charge. If the atom has more electrons than protons, it has a negative charge. If the atom has more protons than electrons, it has a positive charge.
  • Atoms with an amount of electrons that differs from the amount of protons are called ions. Atoms with an amount of protons that differ from the amount of neutrons are called isotopes.
  • Ernest Rutherford discovered protons and the nucleus (postiviely charged) in his Gold Foil Experiment.
  • J.J. Thomson discovered negatively charged particles (electrons) in a Cathode Ray experiment.
  • Rutherford also proposed the existence of orbits for the electrons.
  • Erwin Schrodinger proposed that you can only find atoms in a certain orbit.
  • James Chadwick discovered neutrons in his Beryllium Bar experiment
  • Niels Bohr proposed that electrons are arranged in circles.
  • Now that we've talked about the history of what forms an atom, let's talk about the more numeric part of the atomic structure
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