The Body's Defense Against Disease


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  • It is a pleasure to make your acquaintance , good sir. Now, about you question. The outermost layer of the skin, the epidermis, acts as a barrier separating the rest of your body from the pathogens outside. Since the cells are tightly connected, no bacteria or viruses can break through. However, once the skin is disrupted and broken, these pathogens can enter your body.
  • Hello, Madam Nightingale. I would like to ask you a few questions regarding the body's defense against diseases, as you are one of the foremost nurses in the world as of yet. How does the skin protect us from pathogens?
  • White blood cells are important constituents of the body's immune system. The role of these cells is to kill and eliminate bacteria, viruses, and other dangerous particles that can pose an imminent threat to our health. Different types of WBCs react in different ways when they sense a pathogen in the body. Some white blood cells produce antitoxins to counter the toxins created by bacteria that can endanger cells, while other types will attach themselves to the pathogen in order to destroy or weaken it. Finally, other WBCs ingest the pathogens in order to kill them and prevent them from reproducing.
  • Thank you. As the Health Journal for this year hadn't been published yet, I had no idea about these advances. Also, what do white blood cells do, and how do they kill germs?
  • Antibodies, or immunoglobins are large Y-shaped proteins that recognizes a specific antigen. This is due to the two tips of the "Y" are specifically made to bind to each antigen. Antibodies, are formed and produced by the immune system to counter pathogens in the body. Antibodies remember the foreign particle, and help to prepare the body should a future sickness of the same type arise. This helps to limit the sickness, as well as its effects and repercussions.
  • Thank you yet again, Ms. Nightingale. One final question; What are antibodies and how do they work?
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