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Science Presentation Nov. 11, 2016

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  • Hi, my name is Daniel, today you will be learning about,
  • The Behavior of Gases, The States of Matter, and The Changes of States.
  • One of the most amazing things about gases is that, despite wide differences in chemical properties, all the gases more or less obey the gas laws. The gas laws deal with how gases behave with respect to pressure, volume, temperature, and amount.
  • Gases are the only state of matter that can be compressed very tightly or expanded to fill a very large space. Pressure is force per unit area, calculated by dividing the force by the area on which the force acts. The earth's gravity acts on air molecules to create a force, that of the air pushing on the earth. This is called atmospheric pressure.
  • The atmosphere is too vast for us to have any control over atmospheric pressure. Contained gases are a different matter. We can add gas or remove it, shrink or expand the container, or heat or cool the gas. In this chapter we will examine the work of such eminent scientists as Robert Boyle, Jacques Charles, and Joseph Gay-Lussac.
  • Gases exert pressure on their containers. For example, as helium molecules inside a balloon move, they bump into each other and the walls of the balloon. One molecule alone does not have a large effect. However, millions of molecules create a steady force.
  • These scientists studied the effects of changes in the pressure, volume, and temperature of contained gases.
  • Gases, liquids and solids are all made up of microscopic particles, but the behaviors of these particles differ in the three phases.
  • Matter that is composed of atoms packed tightly together are known as solids. You cannot walk through a solid wall. The matter is packed so tight that it prevents you from moving through it. Solids hold their shape at room temperature. The pencil that you left in the desk at school will still be the same shape when you return tomorrow.
  • Even in solids there is a small space between the atoms. Depending on how tight the atoms are packed determines the density of matter.
  • Gases not only do not hold their shape at room temperature, they don't even stay put. Gases are always moving. There is so much space between the atoms in gas that you can move around in them easily. When you walk from one side of the room to the other, you have walked through a bunch of gases that make up our air.
  • The states of matter are solid, liquid, gas and plasma. Since there is some debate on whether plasma should be classified as a state of matter and since it is not commonly experienced, we will not discuss its properties here.
  • Liquids do not hold their shape at room temperature. There is space between the atoms of a liquid and they move slightly all of the time. This allows you to stick your finger into water and pull it back out, letting the water fill back in where your finger once was.
  • Names such as boiling and freezing are given to the various changes in states of matter. The temperature of a material will increase until it reaches the point where the change takes place. It will stay at that temperature until that change is completed.
  • THANK YOU!!!!! for watching my presentation today.
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