Large cracks are opened up in a cliff due to the waves which contain sand and other material that grind away at the rock to form a cave. Hydraulic Action is the main reason for this.
The cave gets bigger and breaks through the headland forming an arch. The arch will become bigger and bigger until it can't support the top of the arch. The arch collapses and leaves the headland on one side and a stack on the other.
The stack also get eroded from the bottom which weakens the structure and eventually it will collapse to form a stump.
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