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The Founding Fathers of The United States borrowed some of the elements of government from Rome, yet developed and added quite a few innovations.
Both houses need to agree on a law before it is sent to the President for signature. Finally, they created an independent Judiciary known as the Supreme Court whose job it was to ensure that laws passed by the Legislature were consistent with the U.S. Constitution.
Unlike Rome, checks and balances came from the workings of three areas of government: a President, who was responsible for the jobs of Commander in Chief of the military, could appoint ambassadors to conduct foreign policy, and could propose laws to the Legislative Branch; the Legislative Branch is bicameral, including both a Senate, whose members are elected for six year terms, and a House of Representatives, whose members are elected for two year terms.
The Roman government, though advanced for its time, was wrought with corruption and instability.
The Senate would usually have more power over the Executive branch and there was very little independence among the branches of government, which tended to be heavily influenced by dominant political faction.
The United States distributes its power relatively evenly. Because each state has both local and national (federal) representatives, it helps promote the interests of the people in a way that Roman government did not. The American Republic is a lot more evolved and refined then that of Ancient Rome.
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