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In medieval times, nobles and the church had the most power. They had more power than monarchs. In England, monarchs established common law - a legal system based on the custom and court rulings. In France, the lands were controlled by Charlemagne until he died and the kingdom became divided, declared by the Treaty of Verdun. In 1302, three estates were established: clergy, nobles, and townspeople.
We must fight for our land.
In 1095, Pope Urban II wanted Christians to take back the holy land. This caused the Crusades, a series of religious wars, to start. The Crusades took over a 200 year period. Millions of lives were lost from them, and the Christians did not take back all of the land.
The Black Death was an epidemic, or outbreak of rapid-spreading disease, that was spread by rats in the 1300s all across Europe and killed millions of people, which many believed it was a punishment from God.
The boy is dead! What did we do to deserve this punishment?!
The Hundred Years' War was a war fought between Britain and France because the king of Britain believed he should have been the king of France. The war caused new technologies, like the cannon and longbow, soldiers gained more importance, and the cannon made castles less effective.
There were two main types of architecture in medieval times: Romanesque and Gothic. The Romanesque cathedrals had thick walls and towers, and they looked like fortresses. Gothic cathedrals had flying buttresses of stone that supported high walls and allowed space for stained-glass windows.
You are a young peasant woman! You cannot lead the army!
I have been sent by God to save France.
During the Hundred Years' War, a 17-year-old peasant woman of France repeatedly visited the king of France, Charles VII, to convince him for her to lead the French army because she had been sent by God to save the kingdom. Eventually, she did, and she led the French army in the war, and inspired the soldiers to fight harder, especially after the British had captured her.
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