Bacteria & Viruses

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  • These are single-celled microscopic organisms found everywhere in the environment and on the human body. They are visible with a light microscope. They are usually harmless, but some are the cause of disease in plants, animals, and humans.
  • Bacteria
  • Except for viruses, they are the smallest living things on Earth. Many bacteria are so small that a million of them, laid end-to-end, would measure no more than about five centimeters. The term bacteria is the plural form of the word bacterium, which represents a single organism.
  • Today i will be informing you about Bacteria and were to find them.
  • he genetic material of bacteria is contained, instead, within a single, circular chain of DNA.
  • Today, bacteria are classified in the kingdom Procaryotae. This term refers to the fact that bacteria consist of prokaryotic cells, cells that do not contain a nucleus.
  • Bacteria most commonly reproduce by fission, the process by which a single cell divides to produce two new cells. The process of fission may take anywhere from 15 minutes to 16 hours, depending on the type of bacterium.
  • Bacteria are generally classified into three groups based on their shape. They are described as spherical (coccus), rodlike (bacillus), or spiral or corkscrew
  • Bacteria are found everywhere, in the air, soil, water, and inside your body and on your skin. They tend to multiply very rapidly under favorable conditions, forming colonies of millions or even billions of organisms within a space as small as a drop of water.
  • The Dutch merchant and amateur scientist Anton van Leeuwenhoek was the first person to observe bacteria and other microorganisms. Using single-lens microscopes of his own design, he described bacteria and other microorganisms
  • Viruses
  • Viruses must rely on a host for energy production, reproduction and survival. Although typically only 20-400 nanometers in diameter, viruses are the cause of many human diseases including influenza, chickenpox, and the common cold. Discover 7 interesting facts about viruses.
  • All viruses have a protein coating or capsid, but some viruses, such as the flu virus, have an additional membrane called an envelope. Viruses without these extra membranes are called naked viruses.
  • A virus is an infectious particle that displays characteristics of life and non-life. Viruses are different from plants, animals and bacteria in their structure and function. They are not cells and can't replicate on their own.
  • Viruses undergo a life cycle with several phases. The virus first attaches to the host via specific proteins on the cell surface. These proteins are generally receptors that differ depending on the type of virus targeting the cell.
  • Viruses can infect bacterial and eukaryotic cells. The most commonly known eukaryotic viruses are animal viruses, but viruses can infect plants as well. These plant viruses usually need the assistance of insects or bacteria to penetrate a plant's cell wall.
  • A retrovirus is a type of virus that contains RNA and that replicates its genome using an enzyme known as a reverse transcriptase. This enzyme converts the viral RNA to DNA that can be integrated into the host DNA. The host then uses its own enzymes to translate the viral DNA into viral RNA used for viral replication.
  • HIV and ebola are examples of viruses that use human proteins to infect cells. The viral capsid contains both viral proteins and proteins from the cell membranes of human cells. The human proteins help to 'disguise' the virus from the immune system.
  • Certain types of cancers have been linked to cancer viruses. Burkitt's lymphoma, cervical cancer, liver cancer, T-cell leukemia and Kaposi sarcoma are examples of cancers that have been associated with different types of viral infections. The majority of viral infections however, do not cause cancer.
  • Viruses can contain single-stranded or double-stranded DNA as the basis for their genetic material, and some even contain single-stranded or double-stranded RNA. Furthermore, some viruses have their genetic information organized as straight strands, while others have circular molecules.
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