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Clergy and Nobles originally had more power then Monarchs, but the Monarchs centralized their power and eventually became more important. Monarchs developed a jury and legal system. Some kings had issues with the church.
Otto I worked with the church and appointed bishops and abbots to top government jobs. His successors were named "Holy Roman Emperors". Popes and the emperors got in conflict. Pope Gregory VII banned lay investiture. Pope Innocent III claimed supremacy and launched a crusade.
The purpose of the crusades was to win wealth and land, religious reasons and to get away from problems at home. Europe's trade increased and papal power was brought out.
Too bad we didn't capture the holy land.
An outbreak of the Black Death occurred in 1348. It was spread by rats and fleas. It began with the rats on merchant ship and eventually passed throughout Europe. About half Europe's population perished. It was not curable.
Well, that was another failed surgery. Maybe this one will work.
The Hundred Years' War started in 1337 A.D. and lasted to 1453 A.D. This war was fought between France and England. The English wanted to keep French land, but the French wanted to expand.
Please let us expand our territory.
...but I want to keep your land.
Flying buttresses supported the walls and windows. Stained glass windows depicted stories for those who could not read.
Cathedrals took decades to complete. Each was built in the shape of a cross.
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