Chapter 8: Section 3


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  • Opposing Views/Political Parties Emerge
  • Opposing Views • President Washington's character and military record were admired by most Americans. • Attacks on Washington came from supporters of Thomas Jefferson. • By 1796, Americans were beginning to divide into opposing groups to form political parties. • Americans considered political parties harmful. • Washington declined of political parties/warned they would divide the nation. • Hamilton and Jefferson often took opposing sides on issues. They disagreed on economic policy and foreign relations. • Even Washington was partisan. • Washington usually supported Hamilton's positions. Political Parties Emerge • By the mid-1790's two distinct political parties formed. • In the 1790's someone who was a Federalist supported policies of the Washington administration. • Federalists stood for a strong federal government and admired Britain for their stability. • Effort to turn public opinion against Federalists began in late 1791 when Phillip Freneau started publishing the National Gazette. • Republicans wanted to limit the government's power.
  • Views of the Constitution • A difference between Federalists and Republicans was the basis of government power. • Hamilton used the idea of implied powers to justify a national bank. • Jefferson and Madison disagreed with Hamilton. They believed in a strict interpretation of the Constitution. The People's Role • Differences between Federalists and Republicans were deeper than disagreements about the Constitution. • Federalists thought, should be held by honest and educated men of property • Republicans feared a strong central government controlled by only a few people. • Washington tried to get his two advisers to work out their differences. • Jefferson resigned as secretary of the state and soon Hamilton resigned as secretary of the treasury.
  • Views of the Constitution/The People's Role
  • President John Adams/The XYZ Affair
  • President John Adams • John Adams spent most of his life in public service. Became an ambassador to France and to Great Britain • Served two terms as vice president under Washington. The XYZ Affair • When Adams became president, a dispute with France started. • To punish the U.S., French seized American ships that carried cargo to Britain. • In fall 1797, Adams sent a delegation to resolve dispute. • French declined and demanded a bribe and loan from Americans. • French sent three agents and referred them as agents X,Y, and Z. • Adams urged Congress to prepare for war.
  • Alien and Sedition Acts/Domestic and Foreign Affairs
  • • Americans became more suspicious of immigrants living in the country who were not citizens. • Federalists responded with strict laws to protect nation's security. • They passed a group of measures known was the Alien and Sedition Acts. • Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions of 1798 and 1799 claimed Alien and Sedition Acts violated the Constitution. • Federalists urged Adams to declare war. • He refused and didn't want to rush war. • French agreed on signing a treaty and stopped their attacks on American ships.
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