Transcription, and Translation.

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  • Transcription is part of central dogma.  It occurs in the nucleus of a cell where the DNA is stored.  When the gene is ready to be transcribed, the double stranded DNA unwinds and unzips.
  • Next an enzyme called RNA polymerase reads along the DNA.  It makes a complimentary strand of RNA.  RNA is made of Uracil, Guanine, Cytosine, and Adenine.  The same bases as DNA except it uses Uracil instead of Thymine. Once the complimentary RNA strand is formed, it's transported out of the nucleus into the cytoplasm and over to a Ribosome.
  • If there is a mistake during transcription, this could lead to mutations.  These could be caused by replication errors, cell division errors, and more.  One mutation that could be created is a point mutation.  A point mutation is a  change in a single nitrogenous base that can change the entire structure of a protein. This is because a change in a single amino acid can affect the shape of the protein.
  • During translation, the ribosome reads the RNA strand 3 nucleotides at a time.  Complimentary amino acids are brought to the ribosome by tRNA.
  • After the chain of amino acids are created, it turns itself into a strand of messanger RNA (mRNA).  Next it rolls itself up into a loose ravel of protein.
  • If there is a problem during translation, a mistake could happen. In this case the mistake is a mutation.  One mutation could be a frameshift mutation. It is a genetic mutation by a deletion or insertion in a DNA sequence that shifts the way the sequence is read.
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