colonies become new nations
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just before 1500, the European age of discovery began to impact East Africa. along with other Europeans, the Portuguese established a sea route to India. from Europe, they sailed south along the west coast of Africa and then along the east coast of Africa
They sailed along the coast of Arabia and to India. its a much easier and less expensive way to trade with India that any of the overland trade routes. As trade increased, the Portuguese demanded tribute (a regular tax payment). from the East African trade cities. they had economic and religious motives-wanting to replace Islam with Christianity in the region.
The reason for colonization included economic profit, access to raw materials, and the opening of new markets. these reasons also included national pride. the protection of sea routes, the maintenance of the balance of power, and a quest to convert Africans to Christianity.
In the late 1800s, European leaders set out a plan to dominated and control the continent of Africa. The action by which one nation is able to control another smaller or weaker nation is known as imperialism Africa was carved up into colonies.
Menelik firmly denied these claims. He rejected the treaty in 1893
At the Battle od Adwa on March 1 of that year, Menelik defeated the Italian army. thos conflict was one of the most important battles in African history.
Until the late 1800s. most Europeans knew little or nothing about Africa. Two of the continent is most famous explorers were Henry Morton Stanley and David Livingstone. Stanley published a popular travel book about his adventures in Africa.
a bloody rebellion occurred against British and Egyptian domination in Sudan. In Ethiopia, however, the desire for independence prevailed the Italians signed a treaty with the Ethiopian emperor. Menelik II. Italy claimed that =, according to the treaty. It had the right to establish a protectorate"in Ethiopia.
Physical geography such as rugged mountains with difficult terrain provided a barrier that was difficult for attacking forces to overcome.
After the Battle of Adwa, the European powers had no choice but to recognize Ethiopia as an independent state.
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