DNA Replication and Protein Synthesis

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  • DNA Replication: 1. Helicases unwind the parental double helix. 2. Single-strand binding proteins stabilize the unwound parental DNA.  3. The leading strand is synthesized continuouly in the 5 to 3 direction by DNA polymerase.  4. The lagging strand is synthesized discontinuously. Primase synthesizes a short RNA primer, which is extended by DNA polymerase to form an Okazaki fragment.  5. After the RNA primer is replaced by DNA (by another DNA plymerase), DNA ligase joins the Okazaki fragment tot he growing strand. 
  • Protein Synthesis  Homecoming By: Megan Hollander
  • DiNA and RoNAold are best friends. Dina is in charge of the homecoming decorating committee, but Dina has been grounded and cannot leave her house. So she has entrusted Ronald to complete her plans for homecoming. He listens and copies down her instructions for the decorating. 
  • Transcription is the beginning of protein synthesis. DNA is contained in the nucleus, just as Dina is bound to her house. Therefore, mRNA must complete the process. This is the parallel to Ronald decorating for homecoming. 
  • mRna leaves the nucleus and heads to the cytoplasm. 
  • Ronald leaves Dina's house to head to school in order to start setting up and helping the other committee members
  • mRNA will give a maximum of 3 steps at a time (equivalent to one codon) to tRNA recipients. (The empty chair shows introns/extrons). mRNA is the template for the sequence of amino acids.
  • Ronald reads Dina's list of steps, giving each person a particular position on the (T)eam.  Then each person goes to find the decoration needed to fulfill Dina's plan.
  • If there is a problem in the coding, premature stopping or the making of a wrong protein could occur. A mutation is not a good thing to happen during coding. 
  • A member of the Team comes back saying that she can't find the needed decoration and the team should stop decorating, but Ronald calls Dina to find a solution. They fix the problem and finish copying. The Team then continues to finish decorating.
  • tRNA transfers amino acids from the cytoplasm to the ribosome. rRNA (ribosome) adds amino acids together from the tRNA and in the sequence of the mRNA. All of the amino acids come together to form a long functional polypeptide chain: just like Dina wanted. 
  • The whole team does their part effectively, correctly, and timely to bring the right decorations. Homecoming is a success and Dina is happy and excited for the next dance. 
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