Andrew Nassur

Andrew Nassur
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  • King Henry II inherited the throne in 1154. He broadened the system of royal justice and found ways to expand customs into law. He sent out traveling justices to enforce royal laws. The decisions of the royal courts became the foundation of English common law, a legal system based on custom and court rulings. Unlike feudal laws, common law applied to all of England. Under Henry II, England also developed an early jury system. When traveling justices visited an area, local officials collected a jury, which was a group of men sworn to speak the truth. These early juries were the ancestors of the juries that exist, today.
  • I, King Henry II of England, am a pretty good ruler, if I do say so, myself.
  • Pope Innocent III, who took office in 1198, embodied the triumph of the Church, claiming supremacy over all other rulers. Innocent clashed with all the powerful rulers of his day. He excommunicated King John of England and placed his kingdom under interdict, when King John dared to appoint an archbishop of Canterbury without the pope's approval. Innocent did the same to France when Philip II tried unlawfully to annul his marriage. In 1209, Innocent, aided by Philip II, launched a brutal crusade against the Albigensians in southern France, who wanted to purify the Church and return to the simple ways of early Christianity. After Innocent's death, popes continued to press their claim to supremacy.
  • The pope stands between God and man, lower than God but higher than men, who judges all and is judged by no one.
  • In 1469, Isabella of Castile married Ferdinand of Aragon, opening the way for a unified state. Using their combined forces, the two monarchs made a final push against the Muslim stronghold of Granada. In 1492, Granada fell, completing the Reconquista. Isabella and Ferdinand tried to impose unity on their diverse peoples. They joined forces with townspeople against powerful nobles. Isabella was determined to bring both, religious and political unity to Spain. Under Muslim rule, Spain had enjoyed a tradition of religious toleration. Isabella ended that policy of toleration. With the help of the Inquisition, Isabella launched a brutal crusade against Jews and Muslims. The queen achieved religious unity, however, more than 150,000 people fled Spain.
  • Hey Isabella, now that we're married, let's create a unified state.
  • That's a great idea, Ferdinand!
  • By the 1100s, schools had sprung up around the great cathedrals to train the clergy, some of which evolved into the first universities. They were organized like guilds with charters to protect the rights of members and set standards for training. University life offered few comforts. Students were waken by a bell at about 5 A.M. for prayers. They then attended class until they had their first meal of the day. Afternoon classes continued until 5 P.M., after which, students ate a light supper and then studied until it was time for bead. Students were expected to memorize what they learned. They would take an oral exam to show that they had mastered a subject.
  • Up at 5 A.M. again, for school. *sigh*
  • In 1309, Pope Clement V had moved the papal court to Avignon on the boarder of southern France. There it remained for about 70 years under French domination. This period is called the Babylonian captivity, referring to the time when the ancient Israelites were held captive in Babylon. Anticlergy sentiment grew as critics lashed out at the worldly, pleasure-loving papacy. Within the Church itself, reformers tried to end the captivity. In 1378, reformers elected their own pope to rule from Rome, causing French cardinals to choose a rival pope. For decades, there was a split in the Church, which lasted until 1417, when the crisis ended.
  • I, Pope Clement V, am going to move the papal court to Avignon.
  • Cathedrals were massive, cross-shaped stone structures built to worship God. They were the center attraction of cities and took many years to complete. A cathedral was composed of many parts, including the Chapter-house, where the Dean and Chapter met to discuss the well-beings of the Church, the west front, which was the main entrance to the cathedral, and the nave, which was the main part of the cathedral. Other parts of the cathedral included the transepts, which made the cross shape of the cathedral, the chancel, which contains the choir, and the presbytery, which was the house of the priest.
  • What a wonderful day at mass!
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