causation - cause and effect - Root Cause analysis
Neither Necessary, nor Sufficient
Sufficient, but not Necessary
Being human means you can talk. (Some birds can speak, and some humans cannot)
Necessary, but not Sufficient
The sidewalk is wet because it's raining. (The sidewalk could get wet from some other cause, a hose, for instance.)
Necessary and Sufficient
You have to be 30 years old to serve as a US Senator. (Being 30 is not enough to make you a senator though.)
Lighting causes thunder. (Thunder cannot be caused by anything other than lightning.)
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