Digestion 2

Digestion 2
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  • Small Intestine - Duodenum
  • Small Intestine - Ileum
  • Large Intestine - Colon
  • The duodenum is the first part of the small intestine immediately beyond the stomach. It receives partially digested food (chyme) from the stomach and plays a vital role in the chemical digestion of chyme in preparation for absorption in the small intestine. Many chemical secretions from the pancreas, liver and gallbladder mix with the chyme in the duodenum to facilitate chemical digestion. They are secreted down the common bile and pancreatic duct.
  • Large Intestine - Rectum
  • Digested food is absorbed into the blood+lymph. Products of digestion (sugars+amino acids+fatty acids) are absorbed to the bloodstream. Proteases catalyse the breakdown of proteins. Lipases catalyse the breakdown of fats+oils to fatty acids+glycerol. Amylase catalyses the breakdown of starch to maltose. Maltase catalyses the breakdown of maltose to glucose. The inside wall of the ileum is lined with villi. They contain blood capillaries to carry away the absorbed molecules.
  • Large Intestine - Anus
  • The colon is part of the large intestine, the final part of the digestive system. Its function is to reabsorb fluids and process waste products from the body and prepare for its elimination. The colon removes water, salt, and some nutrients forming faeces. The major function of the large intestine is to absorb water from the remaining indigestible food matter and prepare it for egestion. It performs the the vital task of absorbing water and vitamins while converting digested food into faeces.
  • Digestion - Overview
  • The rectum is the final segment of the large intestine that connects the colon to the anus. It stores faecal matter produced in the colon until the body is ready to eliminate the waste through the process of defecation or egestion. The rectum is the last stop before the faeces is eliminated through the anal canal. The faeces is thickened through water absorption and mixed with mucus.
  • The anus is the opening at the lower end of the digestive tract that controls the expulsion of faeces. It is where faeces leave the alimentary canal. A sphincter is a circular muscle that normally maintains constriction of a natural body passage or orifice and which relaxes as required. The anal sphincter controls when faeces are egested.
  • In chemical digestion, enzymes break down food into small molecules the body can use. In the digestive system, food enters the mouth and mechanical digestion of the food starts by the action of chewing, and the contact of saliva. Digestion is important for breaking down food into nutrients, which the body uses for energy, growth, and cell repair. Food and drink must be changed into smaller molecules of nutrients before the blood absorbs them and carries them to cells throughout the body.
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