Chemistry: Chapter 5 Section 3: Periodic Trends

Chemistry: Chapter 5 Section 3: Periodic Trends
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  • Chapter 5 Section 3: Periodic Trends
  • Periodic trends are a huge part of understanding the basics of chemistry. However, as intimidating as they look, they're quite easy to remember. Just picture the trends in a way that makes sense to you, and you'll be a pro in no time!
  • Atomic radius is commonly known as an atom's size. As you go down a group, atomic radius increases because those elements carry more electrons. As you go across a period, atomic radius decreases because there are more protons that pull the electrons closer to the nucleus. Looking at the Bohr model of the atom helps with this concept!
  • BOHRing old Earth
  • Atomic Radius
  • Ionization Energy
  • Ionization energy is the amount of energy needed to remove an electron from an atom. It decreases down a group; since there are more electrons, they are further away from the nucleus and are easier to pull out. On the contrary, it decreases as you go down a period because the electrons are pulled closer to the nucleus, requiring more energy to be taken away.
  • easier to take
  • harder to take
  • Electron Affinity
  • Electron affinity is the energy given off when an atom gains an electron. Going down a group, it decreases because the electrons are farther away from the nucleus, meaning there is less of a pull on them and less energy released when it gains an electron. Across a period, it increases because there are more protons to pull the electrons closer to the nucleus, leaving more energy to be released when an electron is added. In other words, the easier it is to add an electron to an atom, the more energy is released, and vice versa. However, Noble Gases are exempt from this trend because they don't tend to gain electrons; they are already stable.
  • Electronegativity is an atom's tendency to attract bonding electrons. It increases down a group because the electrons are farther away from the nucleus, leaving less pull to attract more electrons. It increases across a period because more protons mean a greater pull on the electrons.
  • Electronegativity
  • Chemical Reactivity
  • Chemical reactivity is the likeliness of atoms to react with each other. There are different trends for the metals and nonmetals of the Periodic Table. For metals, as you go down a group, it increases because the electrons are further away from the nucleus, making it easier to remove them. When heading across a period with metals, it decreases because there are more valence electrons, which would make it more difficult to take them away because there are more of them. In nonmetals, as you go up a group, it increases with high levels of electronegativity. Like metals, when going across a period with nonmetals, it decreases because there are more valence electrons, making it harder to take them away.
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