By radvin27, Updated
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The people made pictographs in soft clay to record information. Later on, they invented writing using symbols called Cunieform, instead of pictures. They also invented pottery wheels and the , number system with base 60, at around 3,500 B.C.E.
In about 3500 B.C., the first city-states developed in southern Mesopotamia owing to the achievements of the Sumerian people. In c. 2300, Sargon of Akkad created the world’s first empire known as “The Akkad Empire". Then in c. 2100, the city of Ur became the center of a powerful Mesopotamian state but soon declined because the nomadic people known as the Amorites moved into Mesopotamia. In 1792, King Hammurabi of Babylon conquered a large empire but this declined immediately after his death. The Kassites then conquered Babylonia and ruled for 400+ years but later on, they were taken over by the Mittani and the kingdom of Assyria. Most of Mesopotamia was later on taken over by the nomadic people. Mesopotamia'sfall wa s caused by overcrowding which led to pollution, war-like tribes trying for geographic influence, and too much irrigation up to the sea which ruined the soil with salt.
The Mesopotamian civilization is believed to be the most influential civilization in world history. The Mesopotamians were the first to build cities, use the potter's wheel, develop writing, use bronze in large quantities, evolve complex bureaucracies, organize proper armies, and so on. They built the foundations from which the Western civilizations followed. Mesopotamian civilization deeply influenced societies in Syria, Palestine and Egypt, as well as the material, religious and cultural influences of the Greek, Roman and Islamic civilizations. Technologies and scientific advances made in Mesopotamia also influenced Medieval and Modern European civilization. The Mesopotamians indeed has a great place in world history.
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