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In red I have highlighted the myelin sheath of the neuron. In the CNS, these cells are made by Oligodendrocytes, which I have labeled with yellow.
The myelin sheath is used to rapidly transmit signals down a neurons axon, which is the segment I have labeled blue. This sheath also serves as a somewhat protective coating to the neurofibers that make up the axon.
But, there is a big difference with your neurons in your Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).
In the PNS, your myelin sheath is different, it is actually made up of neurolemma. This Neurolemma is made by a cell called a neurolemmacyte.
The structure of the neurolemma is different in comparison to the myelin sheath. This structural difference is why M.S. only affects the CNS.
The main culprit of this myelin destruction is due to something called a leukocyte. This is also known as a white blood cell. The leukocyte that we are looking at here is specifically called a lymphocyte.
A lymphocyte is heavily focused on protecting our immune system. It can split into two different forms. These are known as T-cells and B-cells
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