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I am Duke William of Normandy. After fighting with my army for power, I became king on December 25, 1066.
Back in the Middle Ages, there were many issues over power. The monarchs, nobles, and churches were fighting for power. The nobles and churches often had equal or more power than the monarchs did. The monarchs tried to gain power by organizing the government and justice system. They also tried to win the favor of the middle class. A man named Duke William of Normandy fought for power and won. He controlled and had a lot of authority over the kingdom. Another king, Henry II, enforced laws which began the English common laws.
King John of England was very disliked by his people. He lost land that they previously owned, gave harsh taxes, and didn't follow the laws. The noble people of England made him sign the Magna Carta, also known as the Great Charter. This gave Nobles specific rights, gave due process of law, and stated that the monarchs still have to obey the rules.
I was forced to sign the Magna Carta in 1215.
Pope Urban II is sending us on a crusade to fight and take back the holy land. His goals are to fix the separation between Eastern and Western Europe and to bring us all together by having us fight for a common goal. Most of us are doing this for wealth, religious pride, adventure, or to get away from difficulties at home.
The crusades never helped the Christians take back the holy land. The very first crusade was the only one that came near it.
The plague had many negative effects on the Middle Ages. Over 70 million people died (1/3 of the population), and the economy suffered greatly. Trade went down because there were less people, and therefore less of a need for products. This caused inflation in the economy. There was also a division within the church, and people didn't have the strong faith beliefs that they once did.
The Hundred Years' War was fought between Britain and France. It began when the king of Britain said that he was also the king of France. He tried to take over France which angered the people living there. Britain was winning for a long time with the creation of the long bow, until Joan of Arc led the French to victory. They also had cannons to help them win. By 1453, Britain had only one little port in France.
We built very big cathedrals to show off our town's wealth and prosperity, and to signify our strong faith beliefs. We used flying buttresses to support the building from the outside, and we added many decorations such as gargoyles and stained glass windows. Gargoyles are used as a drainage system on the roofs of the cathedral. Statues of creatures have holes in their mouths, and when it rains, it appears as though they are spitting out the water. Stained glass windows showed images of religious events and people.
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