Nonspecific and Specific Defense

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  • NONSPECIFIC--Step 1: Pass Through The 1st Line of Defense
  • The mucus membrane and cilia can get you in a sticky situation. This trap traps pathogens and expels them from the target.
  • Watch out for oil. Oil is acidic and provides an unfriendly environment to pathogens.
  • Be wary of sweat. This lethal liquid is acidic and unfriendly to pathogens because it contains Lysosomes which will end a pathogen's life.
  • If the Prostaglandin has alerted the Mast Cell, be aware because soon Histamines will appear enlarging the blood vessel and allowing more White Blood Cells to the scene. This will halt the entrance into the body and will be an impediment to the pathogen
  • NONSPECIFIC--Step 2: Persevere through the 2nd line of Defense
  • The Inflammatory Response will try to stop entrance into the body.
  • If a Prostaglandin is triggered, act fast for the Inflammatory response is beggining
  • The surrounding environment will heat up. This is known as a fever. If you see a pyrogen being produced, know that it's going to get hot.
  • NONSPECIFIC--Step 3: Know your enemies
  • Macrophages are a ravenous lot constantly eating and devouring almost everything, including fellow pathogens
  • Natural Killer Cells are a vicious group killing infected cells. If you made it to cell, be on the lookout for these guys.
  • Neutrophils are truly dedicated to their job. Watch out for they will kill you even though it means killing themselves
  • Proteins are quite a pest. When they form together creating the membrane attack complex (MAC), they destroy Pathogen membranes. Interferon is also quite annoying. It prevents Viruses from producing proteins and RNA
  • SPECIFIC--Step 4: Act Quickly- Cell Mediated Resoponse
  • A macrophage will come along and eat you and then display the antigen for a Helper T Cell to bind to. It'll then produce Interleukin 1 as to stimulate the Helper T Cell and B Cells, and Interleukin 2 production.
  • Once Stimulated, initiating the Cell Mediated Response, Cytotoxic T Cells are produced and begin killing infected cells.
  • When you have infected the cell, Antigen markers are released on the surface of the cell allowing White Blood Cells to come to their aid.
  • SPECIFIC-- Step 5: Act Quickly- Humoral Immune Response
  • B Cells activated by Interleukin 2, will develope into Plasma Cells and produce antibodies which mark the infected cell for later destruction.
  • B Cells also produce memory cells which remember the exact way to destroy any given pathogen. So, once you start acting, act quickly and effectively for you won't get a 2nd chance. This dilemma for the pathogen is known as the Primary and Secondary Response. The 2nd time however will not be a fair fight as the amount of antibodies will be much larger.
  • Notes
  • Major Histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules are the reason why we have trouble. MHC molecules are responsible for the production of proteins that facilitate communication and recognition of infected cells throughout the immune system.
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