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  • This is DNA.  It lives in the nucleus
  • Before 
  • When transcription happens, DNA is unzipped and the genes are copied
  • After
  • mRNA is different from DNA because it is single stranded, has uracil, and is shorter.  DNA is double-stranded and has thymine instead of uracil  
  • Nucleus
  • Bye Bye nucleus!
  • This creates mRNA.  The mRNA leaves the nucleus and heads to a ribosome
  • tRNA 
  • Ribosome
  • During translation, ribosomes read the recipe in the RNA and attach amino acids to make a protein
  • tRNA brings amino acids to the ribsome
  • This is the final product of translation. A protein!
  • If something goes wrong during one of these processes, the organism will most likely be damaged in some way, but not always.  Sometimes, the organism won't show any signs of damage
  • In this protein, one of the amino acids has been lost.  This is called a frameshift mutation, which could also cause loss of function in the organism
  • In this protein, the wrong amino acid has been placed, which changes the code.  This is called a point mutation, which could lead to loss of function in the organism
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