BuddhaGautama Buddah or Siddhartha Gautama Shakyamuni, was the wise profit knowns as Buddha, whose teachings founded the religion of Buddhism. The literal translation of his name means enlightened or awakened one.
When he was firstborn a wise man predicted that he would be a prophet, his father a King hearing this lavished his son with such luxuries that he would never wish to leave the kingdom. For his father wanted a strong ruler and not a Buddha. For some time it seemed like this plan would succeed however, after years of living his life of luxury Prince Siddharth left the walls of his palace and saw four sites that would lead him to his enlightenment those were: sickness, old age, death, and suffering. Because of these sites Prince Siddharth left his kingdom, renouncing the life he led for years, cut off his hair, and becoming a wandering monk. For six years he practiced severe asceticism however, it did not lead him any closer to the answers he sought (how to cope with the four sites.)
According to texts his enlightenment came after vowing to sit under a bodhi tree in deep meditation, until he found his answers. It was there he was visited by Mara, the evil one, who attempted to thwart him from his path. After surviving an enduring all the tribulations Mara sent he found his wisdom.
45 years after this Buddha went with his disciples throughout India spreading his teachings known as the Dharma. The Dharma is comprised of three basic teachings known as universal truths they are: nothing is lost in the universe, everything changes, and cause and effect better known as karma. The Dharma is also comprised of the four noble truths they are: there is suffering, suffering is common to all; cause of suffering, we are the cause of our own suffering; end of suffering, stop doing what causes suffering; path to end, everyone can be enlightened. His teachings are also composed of the noble eightfold path, the triple Jewel, the five precepts, and the wheel of life.