Protein Synthesis

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  • The DNA of the animal/human is stored in the nucleus.  It holds all of the genetic information of the animal/human.  It is so important, it makes a copy of the genetic information in the form of mRNA.
  • DNA takes the shape of a double helix strand and holds the information for many genes, however mRNA is the "unzipped" version of DNA and only contains the genetic information for only one gene.  Once mRNA is formed, it is sent to a ribosome.  The Process of DNA to RNA is called Transcription.
  • Ribosome
  • Once the mRNA reaches the ribosome, amino acids are attached to the mRNA.  They are attached by the ribosome, which acts like the chef of the kitchen.  The tRNA acts like the assistant chef, and reads the recipe/gives the correct 'ingredients' to the ribosome.  
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  • Amino Acids
  • The amino acids are attached to the mRNA and eventually form a chain.  This chain is coiled in a specific way and once it detaches from the mRNA, forms protein.  This process is called Translation. 
  • Amino Acids
  • Protein
  • If there was an error in either part of the protein synthesis, whether it be during transcription or translation, there would be a mutation and the protein would form differently .  
  • If there was an error to occur in transcription and the mRNA was to be altered, the ribosome would attach different amino acids and the protein would be changed.  If there was an error to occur during the process of translation and the amino acids were attached differently, the protein would be altered similarly to if the error occurred during transcription.  
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