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In medieval times Nobles and the church had more power and authority than the kings. Both tried to limit the power of the kings. The kings expanded their royal domain by establishing a system of royal justice, organized government bureaucracies, developed a system of taxes, built a standing army and strengthened their ties with the larger middle class.
The crusades started in 1095, Pope Urban II commanded Christians to take back the holy land. Many Christians joined in hopes of getting religious zeal, wealth, land, escape troubles at home and a sense of adventure. The crusades lasted over 200 years, most men never returned. The first crusades was the only war to come close to achieving the Christian objective. Ultimately Muslims maintained control.
The plague caused huge loss of life, was devastating to economies, and played a role in changing people's perceptions of authority to the church and secular; 70 million plus people died. The plague spread quickly across trade routes along with rats and fleas infecting everyone. The plague however, helped to put an end to feudalism.
The Hundred Year's War was between France and Britain from 1337-1453. It was caused by the English king attempting to regain control of France. The long bow helped the British to dominate at first but was later defeated with French's cannon. With the cannon and Joan of Arc leading them under God, France won the war
During Medieval times Castles were a system of protection for lords and close by civilians under their protection. They had many fortitude's between the high walls, soldiers, weapons and even moats. These typically kept any threats out and secured their possessions and people.
In the medieval ages church's were of the utmost importance. Their most important achievement was to Christianize western Europe. The church controlled spiritual and secular life of individuals during the middle ages. The church also created there own set of laws called canon law with harsh punishments if broken.
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