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Eutrophication occurs naturally over centuries as lakes age and are filled in with sediments and human activities have accelerated the rate and extent of eutrophication through discharges such as nitrogen and phosphorus for example the use of fertiliser
The fertiliser is washed into rivers when it rains, The resulting increase of nitrate or phosphate in the water encourages algae growth, which forms a layer of algae ("algae bloom") over the water surface.
This prevents sunlight reaching other water plants, which causes the water plants to die out. Bacteria break down the dead plants and use up the oxygen in the water. Oxygen level drops in the lake and leads to more death.
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