Van Leeuwen et al core Study

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  • AIM: To separate shared environment effects from shared genetic effects on intelligence.
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  • Raven's Standard Progressive Matrices  - verbal instructions - 5 x 12 questions
  • Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices  - written instructions
  • 214 twin families contacted through Netherland Twin Registry. 112 responded; 103 with twins (9.1 years) and an extra sibling (11.9 years). 
  • Rasch Model - IQ measures
  • Extended Twin Design: the intelligence of twins was compared (as well as siblings and parents). Families were compensated for travel and children were given presents to children. 
  • Spousal Correlation
  • Environmental Factors
  • Adults and children completed cognitive tests in separate rooms at their own pace. The results produced were comparable. 
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  • - No statistically significant sex difference observed across participant groups. - Cultural transmissions found to have not had a significant effect on genetic variation of IQ. 
  • SC - moderately high (0.33) - phenotypical assortment EF - more significant for children with a genetic disposition for low IQ (people with a certain phenotype are more sensitive to environmental influences)
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  • Conclusions: 1. Main influence on IQ is genetic factors 2. Cultural transmissions do not have significant influence on varience in IQ.  3. Phonotypic assortment better explains spousal resemblance than social homogamy. 
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