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  • Increases women’s reticence to negotiate
  • Ambiguity About "How"
  • (Professor Bowles speaking in background, this would be an animation)
  • Ambiguity About "What"
  • Increases gender gaps in outcomes
  • Ambiguity heightens the potential for gender stereotypic attributions
  • (Professor Bowles speaking in background, this would be an animation. )
  • How
  • What
  • Who
  • Ambiguity About “Who”
  • Heightens the potential for stereotypic attributions
  • (Professor Bowles speaking in background, this would be an animation.)
  • Ambiguity about how to negotiate also leads to differential outcomes. What the research suggests is that there is more likely to be reticence on the woman’s part about negotiating when it is unclear what the norms are about how to negotiate. They are more willing to take the first offer instead of negotiation when these norms aren’t clear. There is good reason for women to feel more hesitant than men to negotiate, because its more risky, which I’ll discuss later
  • Ambiguity about How and What to Negotiate
  • What is negotiable? What salary should I ask for? What staff can I ask for? Could I ask for a leadership role? What we found in archival studies and experiments, particularly in masculine stereotypic domains like salary, is that when it is not clear what the standards are, men have higher outcomes than women. But when you give men and women the same standard, the gender affects go away. And its not because everyone gets the same bar, it’s because people no longer need to use gender as a source of information when they’ve got other clear standards.
  • How Norm ambiguity: degree of clarity about norms for appropriate negotiation behavior
  • Ambiguity about How and What to Negotiate
  • For example, if I don’t know you that well, I might use identity markers such as gender to try to discern what type of person you might be. In a professional setting, this might manifest itself in employers relying on stereotypical assumptions. A classic example is the presumption that women don’t want to travel, women don’t want the oversees work. Or even that women aren’t expecting a certain type of salary.
  • Additional staff?
  • Salary?
  • Leadership role?
  • As a woman, these presumptions can affect you as well. You might be expecting to be taken advantage of because the assumption that you might be soft, so you might act tougher than you would otherwise. The more ambiguity there is, the more we are going to make stereotypic assumptions both ways. In ambiguity, we are not sure how to enact the situation, so we draw upon our mental schema, past experiences, and cues from the environment to fill in the blank. We have to be aware of this dynamic.
  • (Professor Bowles talking on screen)
  • Ambiguity about how and what to negotiate also leads to differential outcomes. What the research suggests is that there is more likely to be reticence on the woman’s part about negotiating when it is unclear what the norms are about how to negotiate, when they are unsure about whether to negotiate or how to negotiate. They are more willing to take the first offer instead of negotiation when these norms aren’t clear. There is good reason for women to feel more hesitant than men to negotiate, because its more risky, which I’ll discuss later
  • What to negotiate is more of a structural ambiguity. - What is negotiable? What is an appropriate standard? - What salary should I ask for? How much summer support? What staff can I ask for? Could I ask for a leadership role or a coach?
  • Summer support?
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