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  • The dye industry goes back several thousand years. The early dyes were obtained mainly through plants roots, vegetables, leaves, bark or berries.
  • The relationship between the absorbed wavelength and the chemical structure depends on the presence of double bonds connecting with single bonds.
  • The structure of these compounds allows the absorption of wavelengths of light from the visible part of the structure.
  • The variation between double and single bonds, are referred to as conjugated. Conjugation can be extended and the wavelength of absorbed light changed.
  • Blueberry Bush
  • Blue dyes were especially valued because, compared with red or yellow, blue shades were not as common in plants. The blue dye was harvested from the Indigofera tinctoria.
  • Indican itself is colorless, but fermentation under alkaline conditions splits off the glucose unit to produce the indoxyl molecule.
  • OH groups are more important for producing color in these compounds than the number of rings.
  • This is shown as well in compounds derived from naphthoquinone.
  • The End
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