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Inferno by Dante Alighieri

Teacher Guide by Kristy Littlehale

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Inferno Lesson Plans

Student Activities for Dante's Inferno Include:

Often times in life, we come to a crossroads where we have to make a decision that will impact the path our lives will take from that point forward. Dante Alighieri (usually referred to simply by his first name), a man exiled from his beloved city of Florence because of political affiliations, contractually married to a woman he did not love while the woman he did love died at the young age of 24, found himself as an older man trying to figure out why his path in life had brought him to this point. He creates an imaginary journey for himself, which later became known as The Divine Comedy, in which he envisioned himself passing through the three spiritual realms: Hell (Inferno), Purgatory (Purgatorio), and Heaven (Paradiso).

At the beginning of the Inferno, Dante finds himself lost in the Dark Wood of Error, where his path to the Mount of Joy is blocked by the Three Beasts of Worldliness: The Leopard of Malice and Fraud, The Lion of Violence and Ambition, and The She-Wolf of Incontinence (in this sense, meaning lack of self-restraint, especially in carnal affairs). Luckily, the great Roman poet Virgil, who represents Human Reason, appears and offers to guide Dante on his spiritual journey through the nine circles of Hell in order to lead him away from Error. Dante would eventually be met and led to the Mount of Joy by his long-lost love Beatrice, who symbolizes Divine Love. By the end of his allegorical journey, Dante hopes to come to a better understanding of himself, his situation, and to be at peace with his exile. Shortly after Dante completes The Divine Comedy, he passes away at the young age of 56, never to see his beloved Florence again.

Dante's Inferno Lesson Plans, Student Activities and Graphic Organizers

Dante's Inferno Plot Diagram Graphic Organizer


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Students can create a storyboard capturing the narrative arc in a story with a six-cell storyboard containing the major parts of the plot diagram. For each cell, have students create a scene that follows the story in the sequence using: Exposition, Conflict, Rising Action, Climax, Falling Action, and Resolution.



Example Inferno Plot Diagram

Exposition

Dante finds himself astray from his righteous path and alone in the Dark Wood of Error. His path his blocked by three creatures who represent Worldliness. He is met by the Roman poet Virgil, who offers to take him on a journey around the creatures, into Hell, so that eventually he can reach the Mount of Joy.


Conflict

Dante is at a crossroads in his life where he needs to understand what has happened so that he can regain his faith in God’s plan. He is frightened to enter Hell with Virgil, but also understands that Virgil has been sent to guide him through this journey by Beatrice, the love of Dante’s life.


Rising Action

The poets descend through the levels of Hell, finding each sin and torment to be worse than the previous level. They meet the lesser sinners, like those in limbo, the lustful, the avaricious, and the prodigal. Then, they move into the deeper levels of Hell, where they meet murderers, sexual deviants, sorcerers, hypocrites, thieves, and finally, the traitors.


Climax

The culmination of their journey arrives when they enter the lowest circle of Hell and find Lucifer himself in the central ring, called Judecca. Lucifer has three faces and mighty wings, which flap and freeze him in place. He has Judas Iscariot, Brutus, and Cassius in his three mouths, each there because they were treacherous to their masters.


Falling Action

Virgil and Dante climb onto Lucifer and down, passing the center of gravity, until they are finally out of Hell.


Resolution

Dante looks up at the stars and sees the Mount of Purgatory, his next step in his journey of understanding his own personal turmoil. He and Virgil continue on without rest.


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Student Instructions

Create a visual plot diagram of Inferno.


  1. Separate the story into the Exposition, Conflict, Rising Action, Climax, Falling Action, and Resolution.
  2. Create an image that represents an important moment or set of events for each of the story components.
  3. Write a description of each of the steps in the plot diagram.



(Modify this basic rubric by clicking the link below. You can also create your own on Quick Rubric.)





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Inferno Characters - Character Map Graphic Organizer

As students read, a storyboard can serve as a helpful character reference log. This log (also called a character map) allows students to recall relevant information about important characters. When reading a story, small attributes and details frequently become important as the plot progresses. With character mapping, students will record this information, helping them follow along and catch the subtleties which make reading more enjoyable!


Inferno Characters Example

Dante

  • Physical Traits: Thirty-five years old, exiled from Florence, a politician, poet, and learned in the law.

  • Character Traits: Finds himself confused about the path his life has taken, needs guidance, still in love with Beatrice, calls out for Human Reason to guide him until he can find Divine Love.

  • Quote: “Midway in our life’s journey, I went astray from the straight road and woke to find myself alone in a dark wood.”


Other characters included in this map: Virgil, Beatrice, Lucifer, Charon, Ulysses, Farinata delgi Uberti


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Identifying Themes, Motifis, and Symbols

Themes, symbols, and motifs come alive when you use a storyboard. In this activity, students will identify themes and symbols from the poem, and support their choices with details from the text. Dante’s Inferno is an especially rich text to examine because of its meticulously constructed allegory and its (frequently graphic) visual writing.


Themes and Imagery to Look For and Discuss

How a Spiritual Journey Reflects Personal Turmoil

Dante’s own world has been turned upside down with his exile from his beloved city of Florence. Throughout his lifetime, he would write letters to the papacy and other political leaders in Florence, trying to regain a political foothold and make his way back to the city. During this time, he harbored a lot of ill-will towards his political foes, and wrote many into the tortuous scenes in Inferno.

Having been raised and educated in Florence, Dante’s one desire was to return, and as he found his efforts rebuffed, he began to doubt how this all fit in with a grander plan set forth before him by God. In questioning his faith, he found himself in a spiritual turmoil that also reflected his personal turmoil. This led him to try to make sense of everything through a spiritual journey, where he hopes to come to a better understanding of his situation by the end of it. This is also reflected in his frustration with Farinata, who refuses to tell him where some of their mutual acquaintances are, and Virgil advises Dante that Beatrice (Divine Love) will answer all of his questions soon enough.


Reason vs. Faith

As Dante comes to this crossroads in his life, he realizes that faith alone isn’t enough anymore. He calls on Virgil, who represents Human Reason, to help guide him through the turmoil he’s facing so that he can come to a better place where Divine Love, or Faith, can take over and guide him once again. Virgil provides the element of Reason for Dante so that he can make sense of why things have happened, and where people’s sins will take them. Once he’s reached the level of Earthly Paradise, where he is able to progress on past the sins Christians must avoid in life, Divine Love, in the form of Beatrice, will lead Dante into Heaven. At this point, Virgil must disappear, because Human Reason cannot either understand or coexist with heavenly, spiritual faith.


The Nature of Sin and Punishment

Dante organizes the levels of Hell in order of what he believes are the least evil to the worst evil sins. In accordance with each sin, the souls are subjected to different levels of punishment. All are in despair and wailing for relief, but he reserves the more painful punishments (like fire) for the worst offenders, like murderers.

In Dante’s mind, the worst offenders of all are those who were treacherous to their masters, like Judas Iscariot, Brutus, and Cassius. Fittingly, this is also the level where the reader will find Lucifer, or Satan, who betrayed God by mounting a rebellion against Him. Dante feels that justice is served when it is doled out in accordance with the severity of the sin, and when it reflects the nature of the sin in some way. This contrapasso, or poetic justice, is a central theme of Dante’s allegorical Hell.


Motifs and Symbols

The Three Beasts

The Three Beasts represent the Worldliness that Dante is trying to escape from, especially in his bitterness of his exile. His spiritual path of righteousness is blocked by these three hideous beings, and he needs Human Reason (Virgil) to save him and help him around this path of turmoil into spiritual reconcile with God. Dante’s exile are his darkest days, and he is having difficulty finding the meaning of his exile to God’s greater plan.


The Gates of Hell

The Gates of Hell are inscribed with the words:

I am the way into the city of woe,
I am the way to a forsaken people,
I am the way into eternal sorrow,

Sacred justice moved my architect,
I was raised here by divine omnipotence,
primordial love, and ultimate intellect.

Only those elements time cannot wear were made before me,
and beyond time I stand.
Abandon all hope, ye who enter here.


Replacing the “I” in the first stanza with the word “sin” highlights a deeper meaning. Sin leads to woe, to being forsaken, to eternal sorrow. Hell itself has existed before man, and will exist forever because the punishment of sin can never end. Therefore, all souls who enter (except for those on a heavenly errand, like Dante) should abandon any hope of return; Hell is eternal. Their chance to be “good” people ended with their deaths; there is no going back to change anything.


Virgil

Virgil was revered by the people of Dante’s time, but, as was often the case with classical poets and writers, the people of the Middle Ages had to reconcile Virgil’s great work with his lack of Christian faith. One way to get around that was to look for hidden meanings in their writings.

For instance, Virgil once wrote of a savior who would come to save the Roman people. Many in Dante’s time took this to mean that Virgil was prophesying the coming of Christ, so they viewed him as a godly man who just missed the true understanding that came with Christianity, rather than an evil, godless, pagan.

As a fellow poet, Dante personally admired Virgil’s work, and saw him as a voice of reason in a godless world that had not yet seen the blessing of Christianity. Therefore, he calls upon Virgil to be his guide through the many sights he will see and experience. Virgil’s explanations will reflect Human Reason, and will escort Dante until Divine Love can take over. Dante is saying that Human Reason can only get a person so far on their spiritual journey, and Divine Love, or Faith, will have to take the person the rest of the way.


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Recognizing Allegory in Inferno


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When studying allegorical texts, it is important that students understand the concept as a foundation for the reading. An allegory is like an extended metaphor, where elements of the story are symbolic of a deeper meaning. Since allegories are works that can be interpreted to reveal a hidden meaning (usually moral or political), it is important that students engage not only with the surface details, but with this deeper level as well.

In Inferno, Dante uses the allegory of his own journey through Hell to reflect the spiritual journey that leads to better understanding and acceptance of one’s own situation in life. Dante chooses a revered poet to represent Human Reason and bring him away from Error caused by Worldliness, through Hell (the representation of the Recognition of Sin), and as far into Purgatory (the representation of Christian Life), as he can go. Virgil leads Dante to Beatrice, who represents Divine Love, which is the only virtue that can finally unite the eternal soul with God.

As a lesson, teachers can ask students to create a storyboard that highlights these important symbolic people and places throughout Dante’s journey.


Example Allegory in Inferno

Dark Wood of ErrorThe mistakes that lead Dante and every person into a bad choice, or a bad situation in life.
Mount of JoyRepresents Heaven and the pinnacle for the spirit’s journey; this is where God is, and the Mountain is the spiritual journey to reach Him.
Three Beasts of WorldlinessThese three beasts represent worldly sins that have blocked Dante on his path of a righteous life: malice, fraud, violence, ambition, and lack of carnal self-restraint (incontinence).
HellHell is an allegory for Sin and its consequences. For Dante, it is the understanding that sin begets suffering, and if he continues on his path of Worldliness, his eternal separation from God will be inevitable.

Other allegorical symbols to include: Virgil, Beatrice, Dante himself.

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Student Instructions

Create a storyboard that shows examples of allegory in Dante's Inferno.


  1. Identify instances of allegory in the text.
  2. Depict and describe the example of allegory from the text on the left side.
  3. Depict and describe the reference to the larger issue or event on the right side.


(Modify this basic rubric by clicking the link below. You can also create your own on Quick Rubric.)





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Create Your Own Inferno

After reading Dante’s Inferno, with all of its gruesome imagery, many students will wonder what point Dante was trying to make. Was he trying to scare all of his readers into making sure they led Christian lives? Was he trying to attack the political opponents who exiled him in a passive-aggressive manner?

Help students focus on the universal journey Dante is trying to explain here, by pointing out that there are many times in life where we might be headed down a wrong path, and there are lessons that need to be learned in order to straighten us out. This is especially true for many teenagers, who may be faced with peer pressure and the responsibilities that come with increased freedoms.

Have students create their own personal Inferno journeys. Stress that it should not be religious, but it should reflect a real-life situation they may have faced or might face, that highlights a time where guidance might be needed to reach a better understanding. Have them choose a guide into their Inferno, and have them explain why they have chosen this guide. An 8-cell sample storyboard of this assignment can be found below.

Example Inferno Journey

Introduction


I just got my license last week. My mom allowed me to take her new Mustang out tonight, but she was hesitant. As I was driving down the stretch of open road on the east side of town, I decided to open the Mustang up and speed - I was doing 80 mph when the police officer pulled me over.

Guide


As the police officer walked up to my window and removed his hat, I realized that it was actually Abraham Lincoln! Abe told me that I had been speeding recklessly, and that I could have hurt myself or someone else badly. He warned me that being impulsive could lead to dangerous consequences. He opened my door and motioned for me to follow him. I like Abe; he’s pretty honest about everything, so I figure that he won’t hold back on whatever I need to know.

Level 1 - The Poor Parkers


Abe brought me to a parking lot, where every single car was parked so crookedly that no other cars could fit into the lot. Cars went around, endlessly looking for spots, but they couldn’t find them. These people never thought about anyone else when they parked their cars, and so they were doomed to eternally search in vain for a spot.

Level 2 - No Blinkers


Abe then brought me to the side of a highway, where several cars speeding down the lanes were suddenly cut off by others who didn’t use their signals. The results were disastrous with cars crashing all over the place. The cars would begin moving again, and they would do the same thing. Abe said that these were the people who were too impulsive or selfish to follow the law, and their actions often had consequences.

Level 3 - The Texters


Abe took me to a busy downtown street, where we observed drivers weaving and slowing down, crossing into other lanes, hitting cars, and hitting pedestrians trying to cross the road because they were too busy texting. The drivers in these cars were forced to endure the accidents over and over again as punishment for their selfish behavior.

Level 4 - The Speeders


Abe took me to an abandoned stretch of road, and we watched a driver in a sports car rev his engine before taking off down the road. He got his car up to 100 mph, when all of a sudden he swerved out of control and hit a rock, his car destroyed and burst into flames. We watched him repeat it again. Abe says that this is the least of the potential consequences from speeding. He could also kill someone else, and indeed, there are souls doomed to repeat that mistake instead for eternity.

Level 5 - The DUIs


This was the worst level of driving offenses. We saw people getting behind the wheel who were clearly intoxicated, and hitting innocent pedestrians and other cars over and over again. The driver would sober up and collapse in remorse, but then he or she would have to do it all over again. Abe explains that these people made a conscious choice to risk other people’s lives, and so they have to relive the consequences over and over again.

The End


Suddenly, I found myself in my car again, on that long stretch of road on the east side of town. I looked down at the speedometer and slowed down, just in time to see a deer cross the road in front of me. I stopped the car, took a breath, and turned back for home. I could have made a seriously bad decision by speeding, but guided by my own Honest Conscience, I’m glad I chose another path instead.

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A Synopsis of Dante's Inferno (Contains Spoilers)

Note: The Divine Comedy is a long poem divided into 100 sections, called “cantos”. Inferno comprises the first 34 of these cantos.


Canto I

It is Good Friday, and Dante is 35 years old. He realizes that he has strayed from the True Way into the Dark Wood of Error. He looks up and sees the Mount of Joy, where he knows his happiness lies, but his path is blocked by three terrifying creatures: The Leopard of Malice and Fraud, The Lion of Violence and Ambition, and The She-Wolf of Incontinence. Desperate, frightened, and alone, Dante feels like there is no hope to get past the beasts. All of a sudden, the great Roman poet Virgil, who represents Human Reason, appears to Dante and offers to bring him away from the beasts to the Mount of Joy. The bad news is they have to descend through Hell first, which represents the Recognition of Sin. Virgil explains to Dante that he will then have to ascend through Purgatory, representing the Christian life, where he will be met by Beatrice, who will take over for the final ascent to Paradise, which represents the soul’s ascent to Heaven and to God. Virgil explains to Dante that he will see a series of spirits in various levels of torment, according to the severity of their sins.

Canto II

Virgil explained that Dante’s long-lost love Beatrice chose him personally to guide Dante on this journey, because he has a way with persuasive words. Dante is grateful to Beatrice, and is buoyed by the fact that Beatrice is still looking out for him from the spiritual realm.

Canto III

Virgil and Dante come to the gates of Hell, inscribed with the now-infamous words, “Abandon all hope, ye who enter here.” Through the gates, in the “vestibule” of Hell, are souls known as The Opportunists. They chose neither evil nor good in their lives—only themselves. The angels who refused to take sides in the Great Rebellion in Heaven can be found in this level, too. The souls in this level run fruitlessly, chasing a waving banner that they can never catch. While they run, they are pursued by wasps and hornets whose stings make the souls bleed. The blood drips down to feed worms and maggots which infest the ground. Dante recognizes one soul in particular, Pope Clandestine V, who gave up his papal throne just five months after being elected. This abdication paved the way for Pope Boniface VIII, who exiled Dante from Florence.

Dante and Virgil notice a horde of souls gathering on the banks of a river awaiting Charon to ferry them to the other side. Charon initially refuses to allow Dante entrance into Hell, because he is still living, but Virgil convinces him. Dante is so terrified that he faints, and doesn’t awaken until the end of their ferry ride.

Canto IV

The first level, or circle, of Hell is called Limbo. The unbaptized and the Virtuous Pagans (like Julius Ceasar, Euclid, Aristotle, and Virgil himself) reside in this level. They cannot be admitted to Heaven, but are only punished by living in a lesser version of it.

Canto V

Moving on to the second circle of Hell, the poets’ path is blocked by Minos, the ancient King of Crete. Though a tyrant, he was known for his wisdom and justice, which made him the perfect candidate to judge the dead. Dante paints him as a hideous monster with a tail, because the job he is doing is so monstrous.

Virgil convinces Minos to let them pass, and he and Dante comes to a ledge where they observe souls being swept away in a whirlwind. These are the souls who betrayed their reason to their carnal appetites. As punishment, they are swept through Hell in a tempest, much like the tempest of passion they gave themselves to while on Earth, and they are forever denied control over their movements.

Among these souls, Virgil points out many famous lustful figures, including Dido, Cleopatra, Helen of Troy, Achilles, and Paris of Troy. Dante calls to one couple, Paolo and Francesca, to tell him their story.

Francesca was once a very well-known woman of high royal birth from Ravenna, Italy. She was trapped in a loveless political marriage (much like Dante had been) and she had fallen in love with her husband’s younger brother Paolo. When her husband discovered their affair, he murdered them both. Dante is struck by Francesca’s story and the unfairness of their torment, perhaps because it hits so close to home with his own life’s story, that he weeps. Paolo begins to weep as well. Dante then faints again, so overwhelmed by the sights and sounds and stories of the souls around him.

Cantos VI-IX

After descending through the third and fourth circles of Hell (Greed and Gluttony), Virgil and Dante reach the fifth circle (Anger) and the city of Dis, which marks the division between upper Hell and lower Hell. The poets begin to witness punishments by fire, the motif most associated with modern-day depictions of Hell.

Canto X

In the sixth circle, are the shades of those who committed heresy, or denied the true Christian path. Most of the souls here followed the teachings of the Greek philosopher Epicurus, who taught that the spirit dies with the body. As a result, all of the shades are sentenced to live in open tombs surrounded by fire until Judgment Day, when the tombs will be sealed.

Among them is Farinata delgi Uberti, who led the political party that Dante and his family opposed, and Calvacante dei Cavalcanti, whose son, Guido, was a good friend of Dante’s. Cavalcante wants to know why his son is not with Dante, and Dante’s ambiguous answer leads Cavalcante to believe that Guido is dead. He falls back into his fiery tomb in despair. Farinata interrupts and begins rehashing old political disputes.

While he speaks, Dante has become suddenly thoughtful. He discovers that the dead can see the future, but not the present. Dante instructs Farinata to tell Cavalcante that his son Guido is alive after all, since Guido can’t see the present to know. Virgil has to pull Dante away, telling him that Beatrice will fill him in on everything he needs to know later; for now, they must keep moving.

Cantos XI-XVI

Dante and Virgil travel through the Seventh circle of Hell, guarded by the Minotaur, where the violent are punished. It is divided into three subsections and includes warlords, suicides, usurers, and blasphemers.

Canto XVII-XXV

Riding on the back of the winged monster, Geryon, Virgil and Dante enter the bolgie, or ditches, of the eighth circle of Hell, where they find those who were fraudulent. The circle is divided into ten blogie, the first seven containing all manner of frauds, such as seducers (Canto XVIII), false prophets (Canto XX), hypocrites (Canto XXIII), and thieves (Cantos XXIV and XXV).

Canto XXVI

The the souls guilty of fraudulent counseling are each surrounded by their own, individual flame in the eighth bolgia. Among them is the famous hero Ulysses (Odysseus to the Greeks), and Diomedes, who assisted Ulysses on many of his attacks against the city of Troy. Dante (the author, as opposed to the character) takes the opportunity to rewrite Ulysses’ story, based on a prophecy given by the famous blind prophet Tiresias. In this version, Ulysses did not spend his final days home in Ithaca, but instead journeyed to the Southern Hemisphere, and the Mount of Purgatory. Ulysses and his men initially rejoiced, but were soon overcome with sorrow as a whirlwind destroyed their ship, killing everyone on it.

Cantos XXVII-XXX

The final two bolgie of the eighth circle has the Sowers of Discord, who are dismembered by demons and alchemists, imposters, and perjurers, who are afflicted by many diseases, reflecting the way they were a “disease” on society.

Cantos XXXI-XXXIV

The ninth and final circle of Hell, is reserved for traitors. At it’s center is Judecca, where Lucifer, or Satan is imprisoned in an icy lake. He has great wings that beat fueling the icy winds of the ninth level of Hell. This wind represents the exhalation of all evil into the world. Judecca is named for Judas Iscariot himself, the disciple who betrayed Jesus to the Sanhedrin in the Garden of Gethsemane for thirty pieces of silver, leading to Jesus’ crucifixion.

The souls who were traitors to their masters are held here, trapped in blocks of ice. Lucifer sits in the middle of the level, where all of the rivers of guilt flow. He beats his wings to escape, but the icy wind emitted by his wings freezes him further in place. Lucifer has three faces. In his mouths he chews on Judas, Brutus, and Cassius, all eternal traitors to their masters who trusted them.

Virgil and Dante observe the horrific sight and then begin to climb through the center, climbing over Satan himself, where they pass through the center of the earth’s gravity and exit Hell. The Mount of Purgatory looms before them, and they push on, not wanting to waste any time.


Essential Questions for Dante's Inferno

  1. What is sin? Are there different levels of sin?
  2. Should there be a relationship between sin and punishment?
  3. Is justice delivered by punishment only?
  4. What is a more important value: faith or reason?
  5. How does allegory function to deliver a powerful message in a literary work?

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