In 1848, Phineas Gage was working at a rail road in USA but an explosion caused Phineas Gage have a metal rod through his pre-frontal cortex.
Phineas Gage survived the accident but his personality has changed. Before the accident, he was calm and respected but after the accident he was very rude and irresponisble
In 1994, Damasio et al wanted to build a model of Phineas Gage's skull by using the actual Phineas Gage's skull. Damasio made a 3D computer representation including the rod and the hole in the skull. This allowed Demasio et al to work out the damage part of the brain
Because the iron rod was buried with the skull, Damasio et al was able to compare the damaged part of the skull working out the likely path the iron rod went through
Damasio et al identified that the frontal lobe was the only part that was damaged. The ventromedial region was highly damaged unlike the dorsolateral region. The scientists concluded that the ventromedial area of the frontal lobe was imported for making sensible decisions and controlling impulses around people
The results were supported when 12 patients who had similar brain damage with Phineas Gage had similar problems with Phineas Gage including the lack of emotional control