The Bolsheviks were called upon by the provisional Government to defend against the Kornilov Plot. This meant they gained weapons and publicity.
They set about rebuilding the party’s organizational structure, increasing anti-war and anti-government propaganda and obtaining support.
Bolsheviks’ party membership increased and by late September the Bolsheviks commanded a voting majority in both the Moscow and Petrograd Soviets
Won local government elections in some towns and cities. On September 23rd Trotsky, by now an ‘official’ Bolshevik rather than a sympathizer, was elected chairman of the Petrograd Soviet.
The push for an immediate seizure of power came from Lenin who called for a revolution. Lev Kamenev and Grigory Zinoviev’s preferred course of action was to push for the immediate election of the Constituent Assembly and The majority of Bolsheviks preferred to wait until the second Congress of Soviets, scheduled for late October.
Three weeks before the congress, the Petrograd Soviet accepted a resolution by Trotsky, calling for the formation of a Milrevcom- were to oversee the Red Guards and defend Petrograd and the soviet from a military coup or counter-revolution.