Abd al- Rahman transformed Cordoba was one of the largest and greatest cities in the world. Cordoba was celebrated as a center of learning . It had a huge library it contained about 400,000 books. Al-Andalus split into many small Muslim kingdoms after 1031.
The greatest of them was suleyman I, known as suleyman the magnificent. however the military conquest wasn't interested in him. The ottoman empire restricted lives. Ottoman relied heavily on special slaves to staff the government and army.
Science & philosophy
The Safavids a shi'ite dynasty became rivals of the Sunni ottomans. The safavids Empire arose when a youthful leader named Ismail united Persian kingdoms into an independent state in 1501.The Safavids and ottomans went north and west by boldly invading ottoman lands.
The Mughals were nomads from central Asia who invaded India. In 1556, the Mughal leader Akbar the great came to the throne at the age of 13 and led Muslims India to a brilliant golden age.
The Muslims quest for knowledge helped make the form of Medicine practiced in Muslims lands the most advanced in the world. One of the most influential works was a 30-volume medical encyclopedia produced around 1000 by Arab Muslim physician in al-Andalus known as al-Zahrawi.
Muslims admired poetry more than any other form of literature. Besides distinctive architecture and art, medieval Islamic civilization also produced significant works of literature. A rhyming poem known as a quatrain was made popular by the Persian poet Omar Khayyam.