In an extreme long shot, the shot focus more on the scenery and shows where the characters are at and where the story is taking place
In a long shot, the shot focuses on the character and shows a bit of the background to show the audience where the person is or what's around him/her.
Extreme close up
In a medium shot, the focus is on the character and usually happens when two characters are talking or doing something. There is not that much background and it can be taken from the knees up
In a close up, the focus is on the characters emotions and zooms into the face to show how the character feels.
In a extreme close up, the focus is on a characters attributes like the wrinks on the face or sweat coming down. It focus on specific features of the zoomed in object so you only see what the creator wants you to see. It also helps to convey emotion or create tension
In a cut away shot, it leads the viewers attention away from the main character and snaps to another object or another character and shows what the character is thinking or looking at. It shows that later that person or object is going to be significant later on.