Copernicus's theory taught us two things1.The planets naturally vary in brightness because they are not always the same distance from the Earth.2.The retrograde motion could be explained in terms of geometry and a faster motion for planets with smaller orbits.
I call it "the sun centred system"
The planets orbit around the sun
Newtons three laws of motion1. A object will not change its motion unless a force acts on it2.The force on an object is equal to its mass times its acceleration. 3.when two objects interact, they apply forces to each other of equal magnitude and opposite direction.
"what goes up must come down"
Einsteins law of relativity taught us two things1. Special relativity: Mass can change depending on the speed of the object2. General relativity: Instead of being an invisible force that attracts objects to one another gravity is a curving or warping of space and the more massive an object, the more it warps the space around it.