King Alexander III died on Macrh 1286. He had been travelling from Edinburgh to Kinghorn on a stormy night. He was found dead the next day, apparently having fallen from his horse.
Alexander's death led to crisis-he had no living children to take his place. Alexander’s two sons had died before him and his daughter had died during child birth.
At the Palace of Scone, the Six Gaurdians decided that Alexander's grand daughter, Margaret the Maid of Norway would be crowned queen. There were some problems: she’s three years old, can't lead an army, from Norway, and Edward I might take advantage of the situation
Edward I suggested that Margaret would be married to his son, who was also named Edward. There were conditions to this agreement: Scotland would reamin independant, and their child would rule both countries.
Margaret dies on her way to Scotland due to extreme sea-sickness. The Gaurdians call for Edward's help to decide their future king that will be controlled by Edward.
There were 14 applicants for the job, it was narrowed down to two people: John Balliol and Robert Bruce. Edward had decided on John Balliol due to the law of primogeniture: the right of sucession goes to the first born.