Soon after the Declaration of Independence, which stated the Americans’ interest to secede from Great Britain, America created a new document for their government and people, which to live by, called the Articles of Confederation.
"Our economy is failing!!!"
But, soon after, the AOC began to fail due to the absence of power to tax and their one house, and made the public suffer quite a bit, trust-wise. Thus, a constitutional convention was held, in secrecy, to prevent uprising, and to better their land.
There were two new plans for representation within government. The New Jersey plan (called for equal representation) and the Virginia plan (called for population-based representation). Eventually, there came the Great Compromise, which merged the two ideas.
Slaves were taken into consideration for representation during this time as well. Due to the new 3/5ths compromise, that was agreed upon and enacted, slaves counted as 3/5ths as a whole person, boosting states with a larger population of slaves as compared to others.
Three houses were put in place to represent the people; and were equally separated. This became known as the separation of powers. Within these powers, came the ability to check each other, and make sure one another is balanced; this is known as checks and balances. The three houses that practiced this were the:
executive branch (enforcing)
legislative branch (making laws)
judicial branch (interpreting)
A new document was made, in place of the Articles, for the government and people. There were people that supported the new document (federalists), and those who did not, without a bit of re-adjustment (anti-federalists). The Bill of Rights, which was an addition upon the constitution, was added upon the proposal of the anti-federalists, and was eventually passed. After all of this, the constitution was finally ratified, and thus began the new country.