Many missionaries came from New England to convert Hawaiians to Christianity. When they came, they also brought many diseases to which Hawaiians had no immunity. Once the missionaries and settlers settled down they began to farm sugarcane. Investors in the sugar industry began to increase their control as more Americans came to the islands.
By this time, Kalakaua was the king of Hawaii and promised to put Hawaii back into control. He was strongly nationalistic. King Kalakaua became allies with landowners in order to strengthen the economy of Hawaii.
King Kalakaua was forced to sign the new constitution that took away most of his power. This document was named the bayonet constitution. The United States then forced the king to give them Pearl Harbor so they could have a port for U.S. warships.
After King Kalakaua died in 1891, his sister Liliuokalani took control and became queen. Queen Liliuokalani wanted to get rid of the bayonet constitution and wanted to restore power to Hawaii's monarchy. Rebels soon declared an end to the monarchy and the Queen Liliuokalani surrendered under protest.
President Glover Cleveland did not support annexation either so he put the trial on hold. He also was unwilling to use military force to back Liliuokalani. The next president, William McKinley, favored annexation which led Congress later to approve its approval.
Hawaii became American territory. Congress also apologized for the U.S. role in overthrowing Liliuokalani. Hawaii then became a state in 1993.