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  • Please take a questionaire and fill it out.
  • Smashed
  • Bumped
  • Colided
  • Contacted
  • Smashed
  • Loftus and Palmer (1974) Experiment 1: 45 Participants are shown seven films of different traffic accidents.
  • Colided
  • Bumped
  • Hit
  • 40.8
  • 39.3
  • 38.1
  • 34.0
  • Participants were given a questionnaire which ask them to describe the accident and answer specific questions.
  • (Verb Control)
  • NO
  • YES
  • Different verbs were used in one specific question - 'About how fast were they cars going when they hit each other?'
  • Smashed
  • 16
  • 34
  • Hit
  • 7
  • 43
  • Control
  • 6
  • 44
  • Findings: Estimation on speed dependant on verb The findings demonstrate that leading questions affect the response given by participants.
  • Contacted
  • 31.8
  • Experiment 2: To test the theory above a new set of participants were divided into 3 groups and shown a car accident lasting 1 minute and were asked questions about speed.
  • The leading question may bias a participants response or may actually cause it to be altered before it is stored.
  • The participants were asked to return a week later and asked 10 questions. One of them being 'Did you see any broken glass?' There was no broken glass. The results in the table show that the leading question changed the memory.
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