Ab al-Rahman was the last Umayyad prince surviving. In 755 he found an Umayyad dynasty in 756. The Cordoba was most celebrated as a center of learning. In Cordoba its huge library contains about 400,000 books. In Cordoba the Muslims, Christians, and Jews lived together.
The Ottomans were from a dynasty of Turkish Muslims. The Ottoman Empire steadily declined after the reign of the Suleyman 1, but it lasted into the early 1900s. Women in this Empire led more restricted lives than men did.
Science and Philosophy
The Safavid Empire arose when a youthful leader named Ismail united the Persian kingdoms into an independent state in 1501. In 1722, a group of Afghan warriors invaded the Safavid Empire, which resulted in its downfall.
Art and Architecture
The Mughals were nomads from Central Asia who invaded India. In 1526, troops headed by a Mughal leader named Babur swept out of Central Asia and conquered north and central India.
Following the Quran the Muslims built many hospitals. A Muslim physician known as Ibn Rushd wrote influential books on medicine.
In the Islamic civilization, beautiful writing did not only appear on books but also buildings. The mosques mostly had the architectural features.