BIOMOLECULE

BIOMOLECULE

Storyboard Text

  • I am carbohydate
  • I am protein
  • I am nuleic acid
  • individually we can accomplish our task on our own
  • But when we get together we can keep the body going
  • Carbohydrates — fiber, starches and sugars — are essentialfood nutrients that your body turns into glucose to give you the energy to function.
  • Chemically, the carbohydrates may be defined as optically active polyhydroxy aldehydes or ketones or the compoundswhich produce such units on hydrolysis.
  • Fructose is an important ketohexose. It is obtained along with glucoseby the hydrolysis of disaccharide, sucrose. It is a natural monosaccharide found in fruits, honey and vegetables. In its pureform it is used as a sweetner. It is also an important ketohexose.
  • Glucose is an aldohexose and is also known as dextrose. It is themonomer of many of the larger carbohydrates, namely starch, cellulose.It is probably the most abundant organic compound on earth.
  • A living system grows, sustains and reproduces itself.The most amazing thing about a living system is that it is composed of non-living atoms and molecules.
  • Proteins can be classified into two types on the basis of their molecular shape Fibrous proteins and Globular proteins. Structure and shape of proteins can be studied at four different levels, i.e., primary, secondary, tertiary and quaternary, each level being more complex than the previous one.
  • Proteins are the most abundant biomolecules of the living system. Main sources of proteins are milk, pulses,fish, meat, etc. They occur in every part of the body and form the fundamental basis of structure and functions of life.They are also required for growth and maintenance body.
  • The amino acids, which can be synthesised in the body, are known as non essential amino acids. On the other hand, those which cannot be synthesised in the body and must be obtained through diet, are known as essential amino acids.
  • Living systems are made up of various complex biomolecules like carbohydrates, proteins, nucleic acids, lipids, etc. Proteins and carbohydrates are essential constituents of our food. These biomolecules interact with each other and constitute the molecular logic of life processes. In addition, some simple molecules like vitamins and mineral salts also play an important role in the functions of organisms.
  • Information regarding the sequence of nucleotides in the chain of a nucleic acid is called its primary structure. Nucleic acids have a secondary structure also. James Watson and Francis Crick gave a double strand helix structure for DNA.
  • DNA contains four bases viz. adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C)and thymine (T). RNA also contains four bases, the first three bases aresame as in DNA but the fourth one is uracil (U).
  • The particles in nucleus of the cell, responsible forheredity, are called chromosomes which are made up of proteins andanother type of biomolecules called nucleic acids
  • Carbohydrates are primarily produced by plants and form a very large group of naturally occurring organic compounds.Most of them have a general formula, Cx(H2O)y, and were considered as hydrates of carbon from where the name carbohydrate was derived.Carbohydrates are also called saccharides. Carbohydrates are classified on the basis of their behaviour on hydrolysis in to three; Monosaccharides ,Oligosaccharides and Polysaccharides.
  • Biomolecules are vital for life as it aids organisms to grow, sustain, and reproduce.
  • Amino acids contain amino (–NH2 ) and carboxyl (–COOH) functional groups. Depending upon the relative position of amino group with respect to carboxyl group, the amino acids can be classified as α, β, γ, δ and so on. Only α-amino acids are obtained on hydrolysis of proteins. Amino acids are classified as acidic, basic or neutral depending upon the relative number of amino and carboxyl groups in their molecule.
  • These are mainly of two types, the deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). Since nucleic acids are long chain polymers of nucleotides, so they are also called polynucleotides.Complete hydrolysis of DNA (or RNA) yields a pentose sugar, phosphoric acid and nitrogen containing heterocyclic compounds (called bases). In DNA molecules, the sugar moiety is β-D-2-deoxyribose whereas in RNA molecule, it is β-D-ribose.
  • Two nucleic acid chains are wound about each other and held together by hydrogen bonds between pairs of bases. Adenine forms hydrogen bonds with thymine whereas cytosine forms hydrogen bonds with guanine.
  • Biomolecules are vital for life as it aids organisms to grow, sustain, and reproduce. They are involved in building organisms from single cells to complex living beings like humans, by interacting with each other. The diversity in their shape and structure provides diversity in their functions.
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