Initially the use of HYV seeds primarily benefited the wheat growing regions only. In the second phase of the green revolution (mid 1970s to mid 1980s), the HYV technology spread to a larger number of states and benefited more variety of crops.
The spread of green revolution technology enabled India to achieve self-sufficiency in food grains; we no longer had to be at the mercy of America, or any other nation for meeting our nation's food requirements.
THE SPREAD OF GREEN REVOLUTION
Growth in agricultural output is important but it is not enough. If a large proportion of this increase is consumed by the farmers themselves instead of being sold in the market, the higher output will not make much of a difference to the economy as a whole.If on the other hand, a substantial amount of agricultural produce is sold in the market by the farmers, the higher output can make a difference to the economy.
A good proportion of the rice and wheat produced during the green revolution period was sold by the farmers in the market.
MARKETED SURPLUS is the portion of agricultural produce which is sold in the market by the farmers.
As a result, the price of food grains declined relative to other items of consumption. The low-income groups, who spend a large percentage of their income on food, benefited from this decline in relative prices. The green revolution enabled the government to procure sufficient amount of food grains to build a stock which could be used in times of food shortage
DECREASE IN PRICE OF FOOD GRAINS
While the nation had immensely benefited from the green revolution, the technology involved was not free from risks. One such risk was the possibility that it would increase the disparities between the small and the big farmers- since only the big farmers could afford the inputs.
Moreover, the HYV crops were also more prone to attack by pests and the small farmers who adopted this technology could lose everything in a pest attack but this risk was considerably reduced by the services rendered by research institutes established by the government.