Schaffer and Emerson's stages of attachment

Schaffer and Emerson's stages of attachment
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The 4 stages of attachment.

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  • SCHAFFER AND EMERSON'S STAGES OF ATTACHMENT
  • AGE : Approx 0 - 8 weeks Behavior towards human and and inanimate objects are similar. will show some preference for familiar adults - individuals who find it easier to calm them.  Babies are also happier in the presence of other human. 
  • STAGE 1 : ASOCIAL 
  • STAGE 2 : INDISCRIMINATE ATTACHMENT 
  • AGE : Approx. 2 - 7 months  Baby would display more observable social behaviour, they would show a preference for people rather than inanimate object. Would recognise familiar adults. At this stage, babies would accept cuddles and comfort from any adults - they will not show separation anxiety or stranger anxiety.  This behaviour is said to be indiscriminate because they are indifferent to everyone. 
  • AGE : Approx. 7 - 12 months Majority of babies will start to display separation anxiety (65% is biological mothers). Babies at this stage is said to have a specific attachment. Adults who are the babies first attached figures - they are termed as primary attachment figure. This person doesn't necessarily need to spend the most time with the baby but the one who respond most to the child's 'signals'. Further, baby see their primary attachment figure as their 'secure base'. 
  • STAGE 3 : SPECIFIC ATTACHMENTS 
  • AGE : Approx. 1 year onwards  Babies start to show attachment behaviour from one adult to multiple adults who they regularly spend time with. These people are called secondary attachment figure. In Schaffer and Emerson's stages of attachment, 29% of children had formed secondary attachment within a month of forming primary attachment. By the age of 1, majority of the infants had developed multiple attachment. 
  •     STAGE 4 : MULTIPLE ATTACHMENTS
  • THE END 
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