John Calvin: began his reformation in Geneva and founded the Calvinist church.
Simony: buying and selling of positions in the Church
Pluralism: having more than one parish to take care of
Absenteeism: being absent from on parish because you are in another
Sale of indulgences: special prayers that would forgive sins and allow you to get to heaven faster
Nepotism: giving a job to someone because they are friend or family
Martin Luther was born in 1483 in Saxony.
The response of the Catholic Church to the spread of Protestantism is called the Counter-Reformation.
Later in life he joined the Augustian order and trained to become a priest
Luther protested against the sale of indulgences.
“The only way to get to heaven is by justification by faith alone”
The second reason was influence if the Renaissance.
Because of the Reformation there is many consequences such as:
The third reason was the invention of the printing press.
The fifth reason was the abuses of the Catholic Church. These were very unfair.
The first reason was the wealth of the church.
Causes of the reformation:
The fourth reason was because of the power of kings and princes at the time.
Ulrïch Zwingli: preached his views to Switzerland. Believed like Luther.
Henry VIII and the Reformation in England: began the Reformation in England.Made himself surpreme head of the Church of England. Closed monasteries. Elizabeth 1 (his daughter) completed the Reformation.
There was greater division between Catholics and Protestants.
As a result, the Catholic Church remained the most important religion in Europe and authority of the Pope strengthened.
The Catholic Church formed a meeting of Bishops, Archbishops and Cardinals in Italy. They ruled on what matters of Faith.
Set up school to promote Catholic ideas and became missionaries in different parts of the world.
It became famous for the violent way it dealt with heretics(torture)
The Spanish Inquisition was a special court set up to deal with heretics( people who offended God) and they said all Protestants were heretics.
Pope Paul II made the Jesuits part of the Catholic Church.
Divisions in Christianity. Western Europe was mainly Catholic.
Churches and architecture. Lutheran Church has no images, organs or crosses, where as the Catholic Church is richly decorated.
Education. Protestantism played an important role in spreading education because the church supported education to the poor.
Tolerance and intolerance. Catholic’s and Lutherans married one another. However there was many fights between different religions at the time.