Culminating Project: Module 1
Updated: 7/2/2020
Culminating Project: Module 1
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  • Overall, How are you?By: Bianca Gonzalez
  • When you think of personal fitness and health, it is easy to assume this is only in reference to physical fitness, but there are other parts of the "triangle," which are equally important to our health; they include social and mental/ emotional health, as well. Each have an impact on each other. For example, physical wellness, like exercise, can improve your brain function, and, therefore, mental health. Additionally, both mental/emotional and social wellness have their share of serious impacts on physical health, but before discussing that, it is important to understand what these two parts of the triangle mean.
  • Social wellness, according to the module, is your ability to understand and interact with others properly. This can be improved by practicing physical wellness, like taking care of yourself through hygiene and exercise, respecting the way others think, since they have gone through different experiences, and taking responsibility for your mistakes and commitments. All these show respect and strengthen relationships, which everyone has, most of which involving either friends or family. 
  • Social Wellness
  • A note on friends:While we may consider friends to be people we see regularly and share similar interests with, they possess many more qualities. They need to respect you, listen, reciprocate the same feelings of friendship, and be honest. Ways that you can do the same include keeping the topic on them when they discuss their issues, being sensitive and honest, owning up to your mistakes, and staying positive with them, even on the bad days.
  • A note on family:Families come in all different forms, so there is no "one size fits all." It is important to remember that, and to not compare your family to others.
  • Overall, How are you?(Continued)
  • It is always important to take time to consider your overall health, especially in stressful, busy times. It ensures you perform to the best of your abilities, and are successful in your future life.
  • The mental aspect of this wellness has to do with being comfortable with the people, environment, and yourself, while the emotional aspect focuses on how you respond to events in you life, including stress, something everyone goes through in life.
  • Mental/Emotional Wellness
  • Stress is the mental/emotional tension you feel because of certain people and/or events, coming in three stages; The first stage is alarm, where you choose to stay with or leave the stress, second is resistance, where you feel tired or weak, but may no longer feel stressed, and third is exhaustion, when the stress has been going on for an extended period of time, and your body can no longer handle it.While there is such a thing as good stress, your body reacts in multiples ways that may include increased risk of disease, weight gain, due to the consumption of "comfort" foods, damage to organs, and fatigue. The way you react can also affect you wellness; most people have defense mechanisms that may not be beneficial, like denial, in which a person is not willing to face reality, escape, where they run away from the problem, rationalizing, repression( or blocking out unpleasant feelings), or displacement, where the person takes their feelings out on others, though these are not all of them. Some people engage in stress eating, which can include either overeating or under eating; both can lead to serious issues, such as nutrient deficiencies, weight loss or gain, and diseases. There are healthier ways to deal with stress, too, however. These involve eating only when you are hungry, choosing nutritious options, relaxing, making time for fun, calling friends, reassuring yourself it will pass, not overthinking, managing time, and taking a breather.
  • Stress
  • Taking Your Health FurtherBy: Bianca Gonzalez
  • Now, you know about your social and mental/emotional health, as well as stress; you understand how stress can change the way your body functions, indications of unhealthy levels of it, such as stress eating, irritability, feeling overwhelmed, and headaches, and positive ways to deal with it, like making nutritious choices when eating, identifying the cause of stress, making time for an activity you enjoy, and reaching out to friends for support. With that being said, the last corner of the health triangle, known as physical wellness, should also be taken into consideration.
  • Physical wellness is having a balance of physical activity, proper nutrition, and mental well-being. With this wellness comes a lowered risk of diseases, reduced depression, increased life expectancy and confidence, and improved sleep. Physical wellness can be refined through the 5 health related components of fitness, which consist of body fat composition, flexibility, muscular endurance, muscular strength, and cardiovascular endurance.First is body fat composition, which refers to the amount of fat in your body; when it is at high levels, you run the risk of diseases, such as type 2 diabetes, heart, and kidney disease, high blood pressure, stroke, sleep apnea, and osteoarthritis(deterioration of joint cartilage and bone), while having low levels will result in lowered risk of diseases, higher metabolism, stronger bones, and a longer life. Next, there is flexibility, the range of motion that your joints and surrounding muscles are able to perform. This helps with standing up and sitting down, posture, prevention of injuries, and performance in other physical activities. When flexibility is not practiced, the body becomes more prone to pulled muscles, and you may experience complications with the neck, back, and shoulders. Then, there is muscular endurance, which is the ability of the muscles to exercise at a low weight for a long period of time, such as 100 sit-ups, bodyweight exercises, and walking lunges. The benefits of improved muscular endurance are increased energy levels, weight management, and enhanced sleep/mood patterns. Along with that is muscular strength, having to do with the ability of the muscles to exercise at a high weight for a short period of time; this can include a 200 pound bench press, 300 pound deadlift, 75 pound bicep curls, 100 pound should shrugs, and 40 pound kettlebell swings. Increased muscular strength leads to weight management, decreased risk of obesity-related diseases, and a boost in balance and your ability to perform daily tasks. Lastly, there is cardiovascular endurance, exercises(usually low intensity) that go on for long periods of time, requiring the heart, lungs, and blood vessels to work efficiently, and are beneficial to heart health, bone strength, and blood pressure. Exercises of this sort are walking quickly, running, jogging, swimming, and biking.
  • Physical Wellness
  • To sum up, there are many ways to take care of your total well-being, and this article covered two very important ways: improving physical wellness through the 5 health-related components of fitness, and creating SMART goals. These two both have the ability to improve both social and mental/emotional health, so setting aside time to work on them will have positive impacts on the rest of yourself.
  • While understanding the decision making process can improve overall health, so can making goals, specifically SMART ones. In general, goals are a desired outcome that you want to achieve, and a life skill that aids in focus, motivation, decreasing procrastination, and tracking progress. A SMART goal is one that is specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound, and should always be the way you set goals. “Specific” has to do with setting a target that is easily understandable and clear; you should ask yourself what you want to accomplish, why it is important, who is involved, and what resources/limitations are involved. “Measurable” is when you attach a numerical value, or specific criteria, to track your progress and know when you have completed your goal, but you must go over the “achievable” step, where you asses whether that value is realistically achievable and reachable for you. You should always set the bar high for yourself, but not too high, or else you may become discouraged. The goal being set should, additionally, be “relevant,” meaning that it is currently important to you, since this sets up the most motivation to accomplish the outcome. Then, there is “time-bound,” which is where you decide by when you want to achieve the goal, and set a deadline; this should also be something that is reachable for you, so you do not feel overwhelmed, but motivated.
  • SMART Goals
  • Setting the BarBy: Bianca Gonzalez
  • The first step to take is to asses your health through both subjective and objective tests. The subjective tests focus on your current diet, physical activity, goals, and medical conditions that may affect future physical activity; these are biased pieces of information that many people lie about, but are essential in creating a realistic fitness plan, so it is important to remain truthful when answering them. Objective assessments, on the other hand, are non-biased, quantitive measurements, which include weight, resting heart rate, blood pressure, BMI, and circumference. Weight must be recorded on the same scale, and you must wear minimal clothing, and use the restroom prior to stepping onto the scale. Resting heart rate should be measured either before getting out of bed, or after 10 minutes of rest, can be affected by physical activity, medications, air temperature, or body position, and is normally in the range of 60 to 100 beats per minute. Blood pressure measures the pressure on the artery walls during one cardiac cycle, shown in the form of a fraction, normally below 120/80 mm Hg; the top number is systolic, which is the pressure when the ventricles of the heart contract, while the bottom number is diastolic, which is the pressure when the ventricles relax. Body Mass Index(BMI) shows whether you are at an acceptable weight for your height, determined by the equation, weight/height squared, though it does not take into account lean body mass, such as muscle, so it is not the most accurate for athletes; a BMI of less than 25 is acceptable, 25-30 is overweight, and over 30 is obese. Circumference has to do with measurements of waist, hips, chest, upper arms, and thighs. All these should be completed as a baseline assessment first, then a post assessment, and a variety of them should be completed to ensure that progress is being accurately tracked; both subjective and objective assessments are an effective way to set a specific fitness goal best suited for you.
  • When you work to improve your fitness, this comes in the form of a fitness plan, where you determine which exercises will best assist in achieving those goals. However, there are multiple variables to take into account when making a plan, which ensure the best outcome.
  • Health Assessments
  • The more intense the cardio workout, the higher the targeted heart rate, and shorter the time to complete the session. These workouts are divided into two categories of aerobic and anaerobic; aerobic is exercises requiring oxygenated blood being pumped to the working muscles, which are expected to be able to use the oxygen for an extended period of time, while anaerobic is exercises with a lack of oxygen to perform short, quick, and intense activities, both of which are used in interval and circuit training. The second type of training is resistance, workouts that exercise a group of muscles against an external resistance, such as free weights, weight machines, medicine balls, resistance bands, and body weight. The frequency and type of training depends on your current goals and fitness level, but usually follows the pattern of being done 2 to 3 times per week, 8 to 10 exercises targeting major muscle groups, 8 to twelve repetitions being performed per set, and 2 to 3 sets per exercise, with a rest between each set; 3 types of resistance exercises that promote muscular fitness include isometric, when the muscles are forced to contract, isotonic, when the muscles shorten and lengthen, and isokinetic, which is done using a specifically designed machine that overloads the muscles with a constant resistance through its full range of motion. The last training type is flexibility, which is beneficial in correcting muscular imbalances, decreasing excessive muscle tension, increasing the joints' range of motion, and improving overall ability to perform daily activities. Though the stretches completed depend on individual needs, the most common are self myofascial release, static stretching, and dynamic stretching; SMR is used to break knots in tight muscles, releasing tension, static is used to lengthen muscles and release tension after physical activity, and dynamic is used to warm up the muscles that are going to be used during an activity. These must be performed with caution, as bouncing and uncontrolled movements may lead to tightened muscles, and an increased risk of injury. With any exercise, you should complete a warm up and cool down to prevent injury or soreness, and to bring blood flow back to normal.
  • Training Types and Fitness Principles
  • Now that the baseline assessments have been established, it is time to decide on which exercises will result in the desired outcome; there are 3 training types that should always be incorporated into any fitness plan. The first type is cardiovascular training, which improves your body's ability to supply oxygen and blood to the muscles, and comes in the form of what is best known as cardio; this should be performed at a minimum of 150 minutes per week, though beginners may need to aim lower. There are multiple intensities to cardiovascular exercises that depend on the target heart rate, the range of beats per minute your heart should be performing during physical activity to best achieve aerobic fitness, calculated by taking 60 to 80 percent of your maximum heart rate, which is the theoretical number of beats per minute your hear is capable of performing, found by subtracting 220 by your age.
  • Stop and ThinkBy: Bianca Gonzalez
  • There are multiple questions you should first ask before listing out what you would like to participate in, which include:What component(s) of fitness do you want or need to improve?What activities do you enjoy?What activities help you manage your stress?What sports skills do you have?Do you want to participate with others, or by yourself?Where is your recreational activity offered?What equipment or facilities will you need to engage in this activity?It is always important to note that there is no single activity that will meet everyone's needs. Another piece of information to take note of is that being athletic does not necessarily equate to being fit; a fit person is proficient in all five health-related components of fitness, while athletes are usually only proficient in the component required for their selected sport.Other considerations include health conditions, personality and attitude, which is deciding whether you want a coach or not, if you want to participate indoors or outdoors, and if you want competition, reasons for participating, environmental factors, such as air temperature, humidity, air pollution, and traffic, cost, and the availability of facilities needed, like, for example, a pool.
  • Considerations
  • Sources:Author, written byStaff. “What Is Friendship and How Does It Make Your Life Better?” Mydomaine, MyDomaine, 14 May 2019, Bergquist, Sharon, director. How Stress Affects Your Body. Youtube, 15 Oct. 2015,, Publisher. “Conflict with Family.” Families | ReachOut Australia, 2020,“Stress (for Teens) - Nemours KidsHealth.” Edited by D'Arcy Lyness, KidsHealth, The Nemours Foundation, Jan. 2017,, Author. “M1 Lesson 1: Introduction to Wellness.” Instructure Canvas, 2020,
  • It has already been established that in order to maintain a physically fit and healthy life, you need to participate in some sort of physical activity, such as recreational or sports, for the recommended time and at the recommended intensity; for young adults this is 60 minutes of moderate to high intensity activity. However, this does not just have to be going to the gym or jogging every day, as it can be a variety of activities that you enjoy, which will assist in developing a successful personal activity plan that best suits your fitness level and goals. There are a couple of variables to take into consideration before making a final decision for what you want to participate in.
  • Calories In and Out
  • Another part of maintaining a healthy and fit life is caloric balance, which is the comparison between the daily number of calories you eat and burn. You consume calories through what you eat and drink, and burn them through either the processes that keep your body alive, known as the basal metabolic rate, or physical activities, such as sports, working out at the gym, dancing, cleaning, or gardening; in order to complete these activities, your body needs to convert the calories you consume into energy through a process know as your metabolism, which works differently for everyone during different activities. Caloric balance has an impact on your overall physical wellness because it affects your weight; if the amount of calories you consume and burn are equal, you will maintain your weight. If you consume more calories than you burn, you will gain weight, since your body has no use for the extra calories and stores it as fat. You can loose weight by consuming less calories than you burn because your body will be using fat it has stored for any necessary energy.
  • There are two aspects of your health that you are not necessarily in full control of, as they are hereditary; these are certain health conditions and body type. Health conditions may include a risk of heart attack that runs in your family. One example of this would be the personal trainer, Bob Harper; though he was physically fit and took care of himself, he experienced a heart attack after one of his workouts, which was not in his control. This additionally goes to show that checking up regularly with your doctor plays a part in maintaining wellness. Then, there is body type, which is a part of what makes you unique. everyone is born with different body types that can't be achieved though just any eating plan or exercise, and, contrary to what most media may portray, there is no perfect weight or look that we should strive for. Discovering your personal body type will assist in identifying and managing a weight that is healthy for you; there are three main body types, including ectomorph, endomorph, and mesomorph. Someone who has an ectomorph body type appears slender, as they have low body fat, small muscle mass, and a small bone size, while a person who has an endomorph body type will appear pear-shaped and wide at the hips, since they have high body fat, small muscle mass, and a large bone size. Then, there are people with a mesomorph body type, who appear muscular and well-proportioned, as their body fat is usually low, they have a large bone size, and their muscle mass is high.
  • Proper CareBy: Bianca Gonzalez
  • Throughout this magazine, we have discussed what total wellness is, how we can improve it through SMART goals and fitness plans, training types that should be completed, examples of physical activities, and the benefits of maintaining total wellness. However, there are more ways to achieve the lifetime goal of wellness, and they include grasping a better understanding of yourself.
  • Hereditary Aspects
  • Sources:Unknown, author. “Module 2 Overview” Instructure Canvas, 2020,
  • We will all end up getting injured from physical activity at some point in our lives, but it is important to know how to treat and prevent these injuries from occurring. The first action to take is to warm up with jogging and stretches that target muscles that will be used, as this will increase muscle temperature, heart rate, and blood circulation. You should also wear the correct clothing for your activity, take breaks as needed, and stop your activity every 20 minutes to drink at least one cup of fluids, since your body naturally looses fluids during physical activities. Lastly, you need to perform a cool down to slowly bring down your heart rate and muscle temperature; this can be either walking or cycling at a slow pace and completing the same stretches from the warm up.When injuries do happen, you must take immediate action and avoid ignoring it, as this leads to longer lasting injury, increased severity, and the possible need for a doctor or surgery. One of the most common ways to treat an injury is through the RICE method, which stands for resting the affected area, ice, which you indirectly apply to the area to reduce swelling for 10-12 minutes, 3 times a day, compression, involving bandaging the injuring, and elevation, where you lift up the affected area to reduce inflammation. Four of the most common injuries that people come across are muscle strains, muscle sprains, blisters, and shin splint. A muscle strain is an overstretched muscle or tendon, caused by failure to warm up before activity, poor posture, repeated motions, landing awkwardly when jumping, or lifting a heavy objects, and usually takes place in the back, neck, shoulders, or hamstring; symptoms include sudden pain, a "knotted up" feeling, soreness, swelling, or muscle spasms, and, if experienced, you should stop the activity, seek medical attention, and apply RICE if directed to. Muscle sprains have to do with torn or overstretched ligament in the ankle, knee, or wrist, indicated by pain, swelling, limited mobility, and bruising or discoloration; stop exercising immediately, immobilize the injury, seek medical assistance for any necessary X-rays or medication, and apply RICE. Then, there are blister, pockets of clear fluid on the hand or feet that are caused by burns or surface friction, which may happen when you run in loose fitting shoes, or lift weights without gloves; you should dry, clean, and bandage the blister to treat it, but do not puncture it to drain the fluid. The last common injury is shin splints, indicated by pain in the front lower leg; muscles, tendons, and bone tissue around the shin become inflamed, which is due to improper training technique, incorrect footwear, lack of a warm up before exercising, and over-exercising. When this happens, you need to stay away from the activity that caused the injury to prevent leg stress, replace that activity with swimming or biking, and apply ice to reduce swelling.
  • Preventing and Dealing With Injuries
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  • Sources:Unknown, author. “Module 3 Overview.” Instucture Canvas, 2020,
  • The next group of tests to complete are fitness assessments, where you perform specific physical activities that test major components of your health, such as flexibility, aerobic activity, and muscular strength and endurance. These exercises include Vo2 Max, which is when you run a mile, and tests your cardiorespiratory endurance and the maximum amount of oxygen your body is capable of using in one minute, curl or sit ups, testing abdominal strength and endurance, push ups, a test to establish your upper body strength and endurance, and sit and reach, which tests your flexibility. Establishing these baseline assessments aids in setting a personal goal for you that is specific to your physical fitness level, and will work to improve it.
  • Fitness Assessments
  • There are also principles of fitness that improve your performance in a safe way. The first principle is FITT, which stands for the frequency, intensity, time, and type of workout. The second principle is overload, stating that you must place a greater demand on the body in order to improve your fitness level. Third is the principle of progression, which has to do with increasing any of the categories of FITT gradually to prevent injury. Last is the principle of specificity, stating that in order to improve a body part or skill, you must work on it and place specific demands that your body will adapt to meet.
  • All in all, taking these assessments, training types, and principles into consideration will help you establish specific, personally reachable goals, and help you adhere to the schedule you create, so there is no discouragement in achieving them; this may improve your overall wellness, as making goals and decisions test your mental/emotional and social health, as well.
  • The weather outside will impact your safety, so it is important to dress properly when you participate in any activities. On a hot day, you should take breaks in a cool environment and drink water, as avoiding these measures may result in heat exhaustion, indicated by dizziness, headache, uncontrollable sweating, or difficulty breathing, heat stroke, shown with dry, warm skin, irritability, lack of balance, swollen tongue, difficulties in hearing or vision, or lack of perspiration and urine, and heat cramps, indicated by increased heart rate, clammy skin with the chills, nausea, or inability to quench thirst; if you present any of the symptoms listed, you must stop the activity and seek medical attention immediately. As for cold weather, the most common concerns are frostbite, which is the freezing of limbs, and hypothermia, which is having a low body temperature, but these can be prevented by wearing layers of water or wind proof clothing that you can take off or add on to, as well as gloves, socks, a hat, and long underwear.
  • What's the Weather?
  • Sources:Unknown, author. “Module 4 Overview.” Instucture Canvas, 2020,, LaRue. “Fit Vs. Athletic Bodies.” LIVESTRONG.COM, Leaf Group, 2020,
  • Overall, you should always take note of your health and personal needs when making decisions about what activities to participate in and how to stay in shape. The achievability of your goals will increase as you understand that one size does not fit all.
  • Body composition describes the percentage of fat, bone, muscle, and water in your body. A healthy body composition is comprised of a low percentage of body fat, since fat increases risk of diseases and decreases overall health, and a high percentage of fat-free mass, such as muscles, bones, and organs. Your body composition can be affected in multiple ways, such as caloric balance, eating habits, activity level, metabolism, energy needed based on how active you are, and resting metabolic rate, which has to do with the energy needed for involuntary movements, affected by how often or much you eat and physical activity; metabolism can be increased during and after physical activity, as well as by eating 5-6 healthy meals a day. Most of the guidelines for body composition are accurate for the general public, but are different for high performance athletes and bodybuilders, like Dwayne "The Rock" Johnson, who eats 7 complete meals a day, and engages in about over 10 hours of cardio per week.
  • Body Composition
  • Sources:Unknown, Author. “Module 5 Overview.” Instucture Canvas, 2020, News, Crew, director. Trying Out Dwayne 'The Rock' Johnson's Insane Diet and Workout Plan. ABC News, 28 Feb. 2018, Click To EditSources:Unknown, Author. “Module 5 Overview.” Instucture Canvas, 2020, News, Crew, director. Trying Out Dwayne 'The Rock' Johnson's Insane Diet and Workout Plan. ABC News, 28 Feb. 2018, Help Insert ParagraphUndoes the last commandRedoes the last commandTabUntabSet a bold styleSet a italic styleSet a underline styleSet a strikethrough styleClean a styleSet left alignSet center alignSet right alignSet full alignToggle unordered listToggle ordered listOutdent on current paragraphIndent on current paragraphChange current block's format as a paragraph(P tag)Change current block's format as H1Change current block's format as H2Change current block's format as H3Change current block's format as H4Change current block's format as H5Change current block's format as H6Insert horizontal Summernote 0.8.11 · Project · Issues
  • All in all, understanding, accepting, and working on aspects of yourself will improve your progress in goals and lead to higher self-esteem, which, in turn, will lead to total wellness. Never put yourself down or compare yourself to others, as we are all unique individuals who function in different ways.

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