Queen Elizabeth I died with no heir, rightfully making her cousin James VI the king of England making him James I of England. Although James believed in the Divine Right of Kings which caused tension between him and parliament.
Habeas Corpus Law
James I had a son named Charles, which took his place from the thrown after he died. Charles believed in the Divine Rights of Kings as his father did before him, causing parliament to go against him. His beliefs pushed parliament to have Oliver Cromwell start a civil war
Oliver Cromwell, leader of the army, fought against King Charles with parliament and beheaded him. King Charles was the first monarch to lose his head in public. Oliver Cromwell became the new dictator ruler.
Bill of Rights
When Cromwell died with no heir Charles II, Charles I son, took over leadership restoring monarchy. Charles II didn't believe in the Divine Right of Kings so he worked well with the parliament and thus created the Habeas Corpus Law granting everyone a trial.
Charles II died without a heir so his brother, James II ruled in his place. He was just like Charles II but he was openly catholic, causing parliament to worry about a royal line of Catholics.
When William of Orange tried invading, James II fled to France with his wife and kids after he saw England didn't support him. William of Orange and Mary were given the opportunity to rule and they took it. The Monarchy and Parliament ruled together and created the bill of rights and destroyed the Divine Right of Kings.