Turkmenistan gained independence Oct. 27, 1991, therefore breaking off of the Soviet Union. 25 years later it remains the most governmentally controlled out of all of the former Soviet Union states.
After the sucession off of the S.U. the media was under state control and access to the outside world was massively restricted. The President highly discouraged the use of Russian Language. He closed Russian schools, reduced Russian language learning to 1 hour a week, and blocked all Russian media.
President Niyazov dismissed ethnic Russians form their workplaces. Foreign-educated turkmen that had received their degrees from somewhere in the Soviet Union were dismissed from thier jobs also. These issues then ruined the efficiency of the country's institutions and led to friction with Moscow.
Political Liberalization that went through the Soviet Union in the late 1980s did not touch Turkmenistan. Because the people did not experience a political or cultural liberalization Niyazov was able to mold the communist one-party rule to a one-party rule. The Party was then renamed Democratic Party of Turkmenistan.
Turkmenistans first post-soviet leader set a system based on repression. HIs successor then followed his ways and made the country more repressed and closed. The poeple are not allowed to travel overseas. The Freedom of speech, press, association, and religion are restricted. This country is at the bottom of the 2016 Freedom of the World Index